Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
A. Kojima et al., “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 60506051 (2009).
M. M. Lee et al., “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643647 (2012).
H. S. Kim et al., “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
N. J. Jeon et al., “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476480 (2015).
W. S. Yang et al., “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 12341237 (2015).
D. Wang et al., “Stability of perovskite solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 147, 255275 (2016).
N. Ahn et al., “Highly reproducible perovskite solar cells with average efficiency of 18.3% and best efficiency of 19.7% fabricated via Lewis base adduct of lead (II) iodide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(27), 86968699 (2015).
Z. Yang et al., “An up-scalable approach to CH3NH3PbI3 compact films for high-performance perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 15, 670678 (2015).
T. P. Gujar and M. Thelakkat, “Highly reproducible and efficient perovskite solar cells with extraordinary stability from robust CH3NH3PbI3: Towards large-area devices,” Energy Technol. 4(3), 449457 (2016).
H. J. Snaith et al., “Anomalous hysteresis in perovskite solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(9), 15111515 (2014).
W. Tress et al., “Understanding the rate-dependent J-V hysteresis, slow time component, and aging in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: The role of a compensated electric field,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(3), 9951004 (2015).
A. Hinsch et al., “Status of dye solar cell technology as a guideline for further research,” ChemPhysChem 15(6), 10761087 (2014).
J. Burschka et al., “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316319 (2013).
M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395398 (2013).
C. W. Chen et al., “Efficient and uniform planar-type perovskite solar cells by simple sequential vacuum deposition,” Adv. Mater. 26(38), 66476652 (2014).
N. J. Jeon et al., “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897903 (2014).
F. X. Xie et al., “Vacuum-assisted thermal annealing of CH3NH3PbI3 for highly stable and efficient perovskite solar cells,” ACS Nano 9(1), 639646 (2015).
H. Hu et al., “Highly efficient reproducible perovskite solar cells prepared by low-temperature processing,” Molecules 21(4), 542552 (2016).
A. Abrusci et al., “High-performance perovskite-polymer hybrid solar cells via electronic coupling with fullerene monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 31243128 (2013).
O. Malinkiewicz et al., “Perovskite solar cells employing organic charge-transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 128132 (2014).
S. Meloni et al., “Ionic polarization-induced current-voltage hysteresis in CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10334 (2016).
E. L. Unger et al., “Hysteresis and transient behavior in current-voltage measurements of hybrid-perovskite absorber solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(11), 36903698 (2014).
H. S. Kim and N. G. Park, “Parameters affecting I-V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: Effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(17), 29272934 (2014).
J. C. Yu et al., “High-performance planar perovskite optoelectronic devices: A morphological and interfacial control by polar solvent treatment,” Adv. Mater. 27(23), 34923500 (2015).
J. M. Frost et al., “Atomistic origins of high-performance in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 25842590 (2014).
J. M. Frost, K. T. Butler, and A. Walsh, “Molecular ferroelectric contributions to anomalous hysteresis in hybrid perovskite solar cells,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081506 (2014).
Y. Kutes et al., “Direct observation of ferroelectric domains in solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(19), 33353339 (2014).
M. Christoforo et al., “Transient response of organo-metal-halide solar cells analyzed by time-resolved current-voltage measurements,” Photonics 2(4), 11011115 (2015).
H. S. Kim et al., “Control of I-V hysteresis in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(22), 46334639 (2015).
Y. Shao et al., “Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5784 (2014).
C. G. Wu et al., “High efficiency stable inverted perovskite solar cells without current hysteresis,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(9), 27252733 (2015).
W. Nie et al., “Solar cells. High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347(6221), 522525 (2015).
N. Tripathi et al., “Hysteresis-free and highly stable perovskite solar cells produced via a chlorine-mediated interdiffusion method,” J. Mater. Chem. A 3(22), 1208112088 (2015).
J. A. Christians, J. S. Manser, and P. V. Kamat, “Best practices in perovskite solar cell efficiency measurements. Avoiding the error of making bad cells look good,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(5), 852857 (2015).
H. Yu et al., “Native defect-induced hysteresis behavior in organolead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(9), 14111419 (2016).
Y. Hishikawa et al., “Precise performance characterization of perovskite solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 16(8), 898904 (2016).
R. Roesch et al., “Procedures and practices for evaluating thin-film solar cell stability,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1501407 (2015).
E. Zimmermann, GitHub Repository of Eugen Zimmermann, 2016, available from:
J. A. Christians, P. A. Miranda Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the excited state and photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon controlled exposure to humidified air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 15301538 (2015).
K.-D. Kim et al., “Decoupling optical and electronic optimization of organic solar cells using high-performance temperature-stable TiO2/Ag/TiO2 electrodes,” APL Mater. 3(10), 106105 (2015).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe “hysteretic” behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd