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Ultrafast, broadband, and configurable midinfrared all-optical switching in nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides
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plasmonics provides a unique and excellent platform for nonlinear
all-optical switching, owing to its high nonlinear conductivity and tight optical confinement. In this paper, we show that impressive switching performance on graphene
waveguides could be obtained for both phase and extinction modulations at sub-MW/cm2
optical pump intensities. Additionally, we find that the large surface-induced nonlinearity enhancement that comes from the tight confinement effect can potentially drive the propagating plasmon pump power down to the pW range. The graphene
waveguides have highly configurable Fermi-levels through electrostatic-gating, allowing for versatility in device design and a broadband optical response. The high capabilities of nonlinear
plasmonics would eventually pave the way for the adoption of the graphene
plasmonics platform in future all-optical nanocircuitry.
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