No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Ultrafast, broadband, and configurable midinfrared all-optical switching in nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides
J. T. Kim, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic photodetector for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 803–808 (2014).
F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780–793 (2014).
B. Zhu, G. Ren, Y. Gao, B. Wu, C. Wan, and S. Jian, “Magnetically-controlled logic gates of graphene plasmons based on non-reciprocal coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 1–7 (2016).
S. Liu, C. Zhang, M. Hu, X. Chen, P. Zhang, S. Gong, T. Zhao, and R. Zhong, “Coherent and tunable terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons excited by an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201104 (2014).
K. J. A. Ooi, W. S. Koh, H. S. Chu, D. T. H. Tan, and L. K. Ang, “Efficiencies of aloof-scattered electron beam excitation of metal and graphene plasmons,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 43, 951–956 (2015).
K. J. A. Ooi, H. S. Chu, C. Y. Hsieh, D. T. H. Tan, and L. K. Ang, “Highly efficient midinfrared on-chip electrical generation of graphene plasmons by inelastic electron tunnelling excitation,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 054001 (2015).
Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
L. Wu, H. S. Chu, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Highly sensitive graphene biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 18, 14395–14400 (2010).
D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349, 165–168 (2015).
Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
M. L. Nesterov, J. Bravo-Abad, A. Yu. Nikitin, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Graphene supports the propagation of subwavelength optical solitons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, L7–L11 (2013).
D. Chatzidimitriou, A. Pitilakis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Rigorous calculation of nonlinear parameters in graphene-comprising waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 023105 (2015).
T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 554–559 (2012).
H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
A. R. Wright, X. G. Xu, J. C. Cao, and C. Zhang, “Strong nonlinear optical response in graphene in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 072101 (2009).
Y. S. Ang, S. Sultan, and C. Zhang, “Nonlinear optical spectrum of bilayer graphene in the terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 243110 (2010).
J. L. Cheng, N. Vermeulen, and J. E. Sipe, “Third-order nonlinearity of graphene: Effects of phenomenological relaxation and finite temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 235320 (2015).
R. del Coso and J. Solis, “Relation between nonlinear refractive index and third-order susceptibility in absorbing media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 640–644 (2004).
W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
A. Baron, S. Larouche, D. J. Gauthier, and D. R. Smith, “Scaling of the nonlinear response of the surface plasmon polariton at a metal/dielectric interface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 9–14 (2015).
S. Sederberg, D. Driedger, M. Nielsen, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-based plasmonic nanoring resonator,” Opt. Express 23, 23494–23503 (2011).
Y. Xu, X. Wang, H. Deng, and K. Guo, “Tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier in nanoscale metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5846–5849 (2014).
N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, M. Ferrera, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epsilon-near-zero Al-doped ZnO for ultrafast switching at telecom wavelengths,” Optica 2, 616–622 (2015).
C. Meng, S. L. Yu, H. Q. Wang, Y. Cao, L. M. Tong, W. T. Liu, and Y. R. Shen, “Graphene-doped polymer nanofibers for low-threshold nonlinear optical waveguiding,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e348 (2015).
plasmonics provides a unique and excellent platform for nonlinear
all-optical switching, owing to its high nonlinear conductivity and tight optical confinement. In this paper, we show that impressive switching performance on graphene
waveguides could be obtained for both phase and extinction modulations at sub-MW/cm2
optical pump intensities. Additionally, we find that the large surface-induced nonlinearity enhancement that comes from the tight confinement effect can potentially drive the propagating plasmon pump power down to the pW range. The graphene
waveguides have highly configurable Fermi-levels through electrostatic-gating, allowing for versatility in device design and a broadband optical response. The high capabilities of nonlinear
plasmonics would eventually pave the way for the adoption of the graphene
plasmonics platform in future all-optical nanocircuitry.
Full text loading...