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Three-dimensional integrated microfluidic architectures enabled through electrically switchable nanocapillary array membranes
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

Exploded view schematic diagram of an integrated fluidic -TAS structure with nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) providing electrically switchable fluidic communication between adjacent layers. The composite diagram (left) shows the vertically separated planar layers, each of which can be assigned a unique analytical unit operation. NCAM switching layers are interposed between layers carrying perpendicular microfluidic channels. Inset (middle) shows a schematic cross section of an NCAM exhibiting nonintersecting high aspect ratio nanopores spanning the thickness of the membrane. Second inset (right) shows a single nanopore and the relationship between the pore diameter, , and the inverse Debye length, .

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

(a) Schematic diagram of the confocal laser induced fluorescence (LIF) apparatus used to characterize the fluid flow in three-dimensional microfluidic-nanofluidic hybrid architectures. (b) Illustration of the digital character of NCAM-mediated fluidic transfer. The bias (blue) is applied in three polarities (negative, neutral, positive), corresponding to the three states of fluorescent probe transfer to the receiving microchannel (purple). LIF measurements are acquired from the microfluidic receiving channel directly under the NCAM. Fluid flow is maintained in the microfluidic channels when forward bias potentials are not applied.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Illustration of sample stacking. Fluorescence signal (black) monitored in the source channel as a function of time and applied bias (red). (Inset) LIF signal acquisition geometry. LIF is monitored away from the microchannel cross-section in a channel prepared with 1 fluorescein in pH 9 phosphate buffer.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

Plot of the current recovery (blue) in the receiving channel after solution transfer across the NCAM. (Left) Transfer of solution by three successive forward bias pulses , as monitored by the increase of fluorescence (black), is followed by monitoring the current in the 3-4 channel, . (Right) Transfer of solution by three successive reverse bias pulses , as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence, is followed by monitoring the current in the 1-2 channel, . (Inset) Schematic diagram of the sample structure. Channel 1-2 is nominally the source channel, and channel 3-4 is the receiving channel. LIF is monitored directly at the microchannel cross-section in a channel prepared with fluorescein in pH 9 phosphate buffer.

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

(Left) Plan view SEM image of a array of nanopores on centers milled into a thick PMMA sheet. The array is surrounded by a fiducial mark prepared by a milling a wide trench to a depth of a few nanometers in a circular pattern. The pattern is readily visible in the optical microscope and facilitates alignment between microfluidic channels. (Right) A high resolution SEM image of a single nanopore in the array. The scoring apparent near the pore mouth results from the partial redistribution of the conductive Au coating during FIB milling.

Image of FIG. 6.

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FIG. 6.

(Top) Schematic diagram showing the manner in which the ATRP surface-grafted film regulates access to the entrance of the cylindrical nanopores, thereby establishing size-dependent transport across the NCAM. (Bottom) Reversible switching capability of a PNIPAAm grafted membrane. Permeation of dextran over several heating-cooling cycles through membrane prepared by first evaporating of Au and then growing of PNIPAAm onto an NCAM exhibiting pores.

Tables

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Table I.

pH gradient changes without microchannel flow.

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/content/aip/journal/bmf/1/2/10.1063/1.2732208
2007-05-10
2014-04-17

Abstract

The extension of microfluidic devices to three dimensions requires innovative methods to interface fluidic layers. Externally controllable interconnects employing nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) have been exploited to produce hybrid three-dimensional fluidic architectures capable of performing linked sequential chemical manipulations of great power and utility. Because the solution Debye length, , is of the order of the channel diameter, , in the nanopores,fluidic transfer is controlled through applied bias, polarity and density of the immobile nanoporesurface charge,solution ionic strength and the impedance of the nanopore relative to the microfluidic channels. Analyte transport between vertically separated microchannels can be saturated at two stable transfer levels, corresponding to reverse and forward bias. These NCAM-mediated integrated microfluidic architectures have been used to achieve highly reproducible and tunable injections down to attoliter volumes, sample stacking for preconcentration, preparative analyte band collection from an electrophoretic separation, and an actively-tunable size-dependent transport in hybrid structures with grafted polymers displaying thermally-regulated swelling behavior. The synthetic elaboration of the nanopore interior has also been used to great effect to realize molecular separations of high efficiency. All of these manipulations depend critically on the transport properties of individual nanocapillaries, and the study of transport in single nanopores has recently attracted significant attention. Both computation and experimental studies have utilized single nanopores as test beds to understand the fundamental chemical and physical properties of chemistry and fluid flow at nanometer length scales.

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Scitation: Three-dimensional integrated microfluidic architectures enabled through electrically switchable nanocapillary array membranes
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/bmf/1/2/10.1063/1.2732208
10.1063/1.2732208
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