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Fast and reliable droplet transport on single-plate electrowetting on dielectrics using nonfloating switching method
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Two conventional configurations of EWOD: (a) parallel-plate configuration; (b) single-plate configuration.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Change in contact angle and minimization of free energy of system: (a) before applying a voltage; (b) just after voltage is applied; (c) in equilibrium state.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

A droplet in contact with high voltage and grounded electrodes.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Switching methods. (a) Method A simultaneously applies high and low voltages to a pair of electrodes located in transverse direction to the direction of movement. (b) In method B, the electrode pair is parallel to the direction of movement. In methods (c) C and (d) D, an intermediate step is introduced to methods A and B, respectively. That is, after a droplet moves to the activated electrode pair, the activated electrodes are briefly grounded. (e) Method E is nonfloating switching method which applies a high voltage to a single electrode while grounding the rest of electrodes. Time sequence is from left to right.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Charge distribution in electrodes. Left is for initial step and right is for next step. (a) Conventional switching method; (b) nonfloating switching method.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Electrode connections: (a) with two switches; (b) with one switch and one resistor; (c) with single three-way switch.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Patterns of electrode arrays: (a) pattern 1; (b) pattern 2. electrode arrays are made; the dimension of an electrode is and the gap between two electrodes is in width.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Droplet oscillation on an electrode array.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Transport path: (a) for methods A and C; (b) for methods B, D, and E.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Maximum speed of transport for five switching methods: (a) at ; (b) at .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Equilibrium position obtained theoretically (up) and experimentally (down): (a) for methods A and C; (b) for methods B and D; (c) for method E.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Fast and reliable droplet transport on single-plate electrowetting on dielectrics using nonfloating switching method