Schematic of oscillating flow PCR (not to scale).
(a) Fabricated glass chip with nanoports attached to the access holes. (b) and (c) SEM of the microchannel bends.
Schematic of the temperature control system.
PCR chip system setup. (1) PCR glass chip, (2) syringe pump, (3) glass syringe, (4) fluidic connections, (5) temperature control system, and (6) heater housing with temperature sensors.
Agarose gel electrophorogram of amplified 150 bp PCR product for cycle times of (a) 52.5, (b) 37.5, (c) 22.5, and (d) 29.5 min for 30 cycles (lane M: 100 bp ladder; lane C: control; lane 1: chip).
Agarose gel electrophorogram of the amplified 1238 bp PCR product for cycle times of (a) 39.5 and (b) 55 min for 30 cycles (lane M: 1 kbp ladder; C: control; 1: chip).
Gel electrophoresis results of DNA adsorption experiment; (a) 150 bp DNA templates (lane M: 100 bp ladder; lane C: control; lanes 1–4: chip) and (b) 1238 bp DNA templates (lane M: 1 kbp ladder; lane C: control; lanes 1–4: chip).
Taq polymerase adsorption slab gel electrophoresis results. (a) 150 bp (lane M: 100 bp ladder; C: control; 1, 2, 3, 4: chip) and (b) 1238 bp (lane M: 1 kbp ladder; C: control; 1, 2, 3, 4: chip).
Sample evaporation rate inside the PCR chip.
(a) Formation of bubbles inside the microchannels at various temperatures without oil plug. (b) Absence of bubbles inside the microchannel even at high temperatures with the addition of oil plug.
Composition of different PCR mixtures.
Standard PCR temperature and cycle setup using conventional thermal cycler.
Experimental schemes for process optimization.
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