The collapse of low-conductivity data of latex particles by the collapsed layer theory ( and ). Open symbols correspond to colloids smaller than 220 nm.
The crossover data for two different latex particle sizes compared to the three theories for different medium conductivities. Same symbols as Fig. 1 are used. Also shown is Ermonila and Morgan’s theory, which uses the Maxwell–Wagner expression but included in the particle conductivity contributions from the Stern layer conduction and diffuse layer conduction and convection . The Stern layer conductance was estimated to be 0.92 nS and the diffuse layer conductance is with the electro-osmotic contribution captured by . The zeta potential is related to the surface field .
Collapse of crossover data below 0.1 S/m by the high-conductivity theory. Same symbols as in Fig. 1. Field focusing around an insulated sphere driving an intense charge accumulation at the polar double layer interface due to conductivity gradients.
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