Schematic illustration of the simplified fabrication process for a cell-culture device by using a SU-8 mold and PDMS replication process. (a) Lithography process to define the SU-8 mold pattern. (b) PDMS casting process to pour PDMS onto the SU-8 mold and then to thermally cure the polymer. (c) PDMS replication process to mechanically separate the SU-8 mold and the PDMS replica. (d) Bonding process to bond the PDMS layers and a glass substrate to form a complete microfluidic chip by using an oxygen plasma treatment prior to assembly. 
Schematic illustration of stem cells with different characteristics obtained from a human body capable of differentiating into various cell types.
(a) Schematic illustration of a 2D, automatic, cell-culture system including a cell-culture area, four micropumps, four microcheck valves, microchannels, reservoirs, two heaters, and a microtemperature sensor (Ref. 14). [(b)–(e)] A 3D, gel-free microfluidic device. (b) Cell surfaces modified by sodium periodate (NaIO4) have aldehyde groups which react with hydrazides on the intercellular linker to form multicellular aggregates. (c) Cells are suspended in a cell-culture medium with a dissolved intercellular linker and are seeded into the microfluidic channel with an exit flow at the outlet. (d) Transmission image of the cellular construct in a gel-free 3D-mFCCS after seeding. (e) Confocal microscopic image of cells aggregated with fluorescent intercellular linkers. Additional details regarding the fabrication of devices and experimental procedures can be found in Ref. 74. 
(a) Schematic illustration of a pneumatically tunable microfilter and a close-up view of the filter zone.  (b) Differential manipulation of regions of a single bovine capillary endothelial cell using multiple laminar flows. 
(a) Surfaces are treated with fibronectin and are seeded with MEF cells growing into a monolayer. [(b)–(g)] hES-MEF cocultures at various time intervals. MEFs are stained with CFSE (green) and hES cells with Vybrants DiD (red). (h) Confocal microscopic images of hES-MEF cocultures within a microwell on day 1. Additional details regarding the coating method can be found in Ref. 115. 
(a) Schematic illustration of the microfluidic EB formation device. Two PDMS microchannels are separated by a semiporous polycarbonate membrane, and the cells self-aggregate and form EBs because channel surfaces are rendered resistant to cell adhesion.  (b) Two types of cells, MDA-MB-231 cells (green) and COS7 cells (red), are juxtaposed in the top layer as fluid flow focuses them together into one channel in the bottom layer, and cellular patterning on the bottom channel with distinct geometric features for shape control. 
The rate of development in each half of an embryo exposed to a T-step is affected by temperature. Higher nuclear density is observed in the warmer half of the embryo. 
(a) Schematic diagram of a dual-layer microfluidic device. The fluidic layer is shown in red and the push-down valves are shown in blue. (b) Phase contrast image of single-cell colonies seeded inside the microfluidic device. (c) The single-cell colonies where DAPI indicates staining of dead cell (the arrows). (d) Phase contrast image of a small multicellular colony inside the microfluidic device. (e) DAPI image of a multicellular colony stained with CellTrackert. Additional details regarding the experimental procedures and results can be found in Ref. 139. 
(a) Schematic diagram of the fluidic path in the chip. (b) A photograph of the chip with the channels filled with colored water to indicate different parts of the device. Additional details regarding the fabrication of devices and results can be found in Ref. 141. 
Graphic representation of the microfluidic device concept. Cells can be trapped by hydrodynamic flow. 
Comparison of the three potencies of stem cells (totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent) (Refs. 28 and 29).
The differentiations between the characteristics of embryonic stem cells and those of adult stem cells.
The categorizations of microfluidic systems for stem cells based on stem cell types.
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