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(a) The distribution of the electric field in a quadruple electrode was simulated by COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS and the applied voltage was 10 . (b) DEP phenomena of E. coli cells treated with the concentrations of 0, 4, and for 60 min under 0.6 and 4 MHz, respectively.
(a) The distribution of the electric field of cell models with different lengths (2, 6, and ) was simulated by COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS, and the voltage was applied from end to end. (Parameters: the applied voltage of 10 V, the electrode gap of , and the surface charge density of 0.1 C/m). (b) The magnitude of the electric field obtained in the cross section of the cell model with different length of (solid), (dashed) and (dotted) as shown in the inset.
The growth of E. coli using the conventional agar dilution method shows that MIC is between 32 and .
The evolution of (a) elongated length and (b) cof of the elongated cells with changes in the treatment time for different antibiotic concentration . The means and standard errors were obtained by three repeated experiments and 10 cells were taken for analysis from each experiment.
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