Diagram depicting the process for patterning PDMS surface via electrospun nanofibers.
The photographs of the electrospun PVP nanofibers and produced patterned PDMS surfaces under different concentrations. (a) The microscope images of the PVP nanofibers spun with five concentrations (640×). SEM image of PVP nanofibers spun with 16% initial concentration. (b) The microscope images of PDMS surfaces embedded with PVP nanofibers (640×). (c) The microscope images of patterned PDMS surfaces after fibers removal (640×). SEM image of PDMS surfaces patterned with microstructures.
The designed microdevice for cell behavior investigation by integrating microfluidic channel with PDMS substrate sacrificed by nanofibers. (a) The illustration of the microdevice for investigating cell migration on patterned surfaces. (b) The schematic of microdevice for investigating cell orientation under combined effects of microchannel spatial confinement and patterned surface guidance.
Characterization of cell viability and proliferation on PDMS surfaces by using PVP nanofibers sacrificed method. (a) The images of cell morphology on surfaces that patterned with different diameters of PVP nanofibers (100×). (b) Cell proliferation on patterned surfaces by counting cell number (***P < 0.001, *P < 0.05).
Cell migration investigation used microdevice by integrating microfluidic channel with nanofiber patterned surface. (a) The real-time images of cell migration in the microchannels which are parallel with the patterned surface (100×). (b) The fluorescent microscope images of cell migration in the microchannels that are parallel or perpendicular with patterned surface (100×). (c) The comparison of migrated cells number in microfluidic channels (*P < 0.05).
The immunofluorescent staining images of cell orientation on patterned (a) and unpatterned surfaces (b) (100×) (red: F-actin, blue: nuclei stained with DAPI).
Cell orientation under combined effects of microchannel spatial confinement and nanofiber patterned surface guidance. (a) The fluorescent images of cell orientation within diverse diameter microchannels with different angle on the microfiber patterned surface. (100×) (red solid lines represent patterned surface orientation). (b) The decisive factor of cells orientation in complicated microenvironments. (N1: the cell number which is counted having the same orientation with patterned surfaces in confined microchannel; N2: the total cell number in confined microchannel; N3: the cell number which is counted having the same orientation with the microchannel).
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