(a) PDMS-based micro-channel device with solution and gas has been pumped through the inlets and bubbles have been collected from the outlet. (b) Monodisperse bubbles with a uniform size were formed and constantly flowed out.
Design of the fluidic chamber assembly.
Side-view of the electrotaxis system.
(a) Picture of a 3D scaffold. (b) Bright-field confocal image of a 3D scaffold. Only one fixed layer is shown. Scale bar = 50 μm. (c) Fluorescent confocal image of a 3D scaffold. Only one fixed layer is shown. Scale bar = 50 μm. (d) Re-constructed 3D top-view image of a 3D scaffold. (e) Re-constructed 3D side-view image of a 3D scaffold. (f) Re-constructed 3D image of CL1-0 cells (stained with CellVue®) inside a 3D scaffold (enhanced online) . [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3671399.1]10.1063/1.3671399.1
Pulmonary alveoli. An alveolus has a form of a hollow cavity, and in some alveolar walls, there are pores between alveoli called Pores of Kohn (reprinted from The President’s Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C., January 2009, http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/pcbe/).
Ellipticity of (a) CL1-0, (b) CL1-5, and (c) A549 cells after 2 h and 2 days cultured in 2D and 3D environments. (2D: 2D bare substrate, 2DG: 2D-gelatin coated substrate, 3DG: 3D-gelatin made scaffold.) For each cell line, the total number of cells selected for analysis is 30.
A549 cells inside a 3D scaffold under an applied EF of 338 mV/mm at (a) t = 0 min and (b) t = 60 min. Clearly some cells (Nos. 1, 2, and 3 in blue circles) migrated through interconnected pores (enhanced online) . [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3671399.2]10.1063/1.3671399.2
Polar plots of cell migration after 2 h with and without the applied EF. Left column: CL1-0, CL1-5, and A549 without the applied EF. Right column: CL1-0, CL1-5, and A549 with the applied EF of 338 mV/mm. In the beginning, cells are set at the origin. All plots have the same scale and EF direction (from the right to the left).
Similarities between 3D porous scaffolds and in vivo pulmonary alveoli.
Migration directedness and speed of 3 different cells with and without the applied EF in 3D scaffolds. n is the total number of cells selected for analysis.
Electrotaxis of lung cancer cell lines CL1-0, CL1-5, and A549 in 2D and 3D environments. Stimulation time = 2 h (2D: 2D bare substrate, 2DG: 2D-gelatin coated substrate, 3D: 3D-gelatin made scaffold).
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