Hydrodynamic particle manipulation. (a) Drag force acting on a particle under microfluidic flow; (b) sheath flow focusing; (c) sheathless flow focusing; (d) H-shaped inlet and outlet microfluidic separation system.
Acoustophoretic manipulation of suspended particles. (a) Acoustophoretic manipulation of particles when subject to acoustic waves. (b) Schematic of acoustophoretic sorting of a mixture of particles with different density and compressibility properties.
Schematic of a particle experiencing the electrophoretic force.
Schematic of DEP manipulation of particles. (a) When Re[fCM(ω)] > 0, the particle experiences a positive DEP pulling it towards the region of high electric field gradients; (b) when Re[fCM(ω)] < 0, the particle experiences a negative DEP repelling it from the region of high electric field gradients.
Schematic of thermophoretic manipulation of particles. Thermophilic particles drift toward hotter regions, while thermophobic particles drift toward the cooler regions.
Optical manipulation of suspended particles using (a) direct optical tweezing; (b) near field optical manipulation of suspended particles; (c) manipulation of particles using plasmonic nanostructures.
Magnetophoretic manipulation of suspended particles. (a) Particle is pulled toward the region of high magnetic field gradients when χp > χm. (b) Particle is repelled from the region of high magnetic field gradients when χp < χm.
Hydrodynamically focused nanoparticles used as optical waveguiding media. (a) Schematic of nanoparticle optofluidic waveguide using polysterene nanobeads and DI water, as the core and cladding, respectively. (b) Intensity distribution at the waveguide output showing a high core to cladding intensity ratio. Reproduced with permission from R. S. Conroy, B. T. Mayers, D. V. Vezenov, D. B. Wolfe, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Appl. Opt. 44, 36 (2005). Copyright © 2005 American Chemical Society.
Waveguide tuning using DEP focused particles. (a) WO3 nanoparticles focused in the center of the DEP electrodes using positive DEP forces. (b) Light was coupled into the particle dense media above rib waveguide. (c) WO3 nanoparticles repelled from the center. (d) Light remains in the polymeric rib waveguide. Reproduced with permission from A. A. Kayani, A. F. Chrimes, K. Khoshmanesh, V. Sivan, E. Zeller, K. Kalantar-zadeh, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 1 (2011). Copyright © 2011 Springer Verlag.
Optofluidic lens using suspended particles controlled by optical forces. (a) Schematic of the experimental geometry for beam manipulation. FDTD field output depending on the microsphere position: (b) on axis, (c) off axis, (d) leaving beam. (e) Insertion loss experimental and numerical simulation data with transmission regimes are identified. Reproduced with permission from P. Domachuk, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. J. Eggleton, S. Mutzenich, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Opt. Express 13, 19 (2005). Copyright © 2005 American Chemical Society.
Particle transport using an optofluidic ring resonator. (a) Schematic of optofluidic ring resonator switch with boxed figure showing the switching mechanism due to optical forces when the ring is strongly coupled at the resonant wavelength. (b) Trapped particles are diverted and continue to move forward on the ring under the on-resonance state. (c) In the off-resonant state, particles pass through the switching junction and are not routed into the ring structure. Reproduced with permission from A. H. J. Yang and D. Erickson, Lab Chip 10, 6 (2010). Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Optofluidic ARROW platform optimized for particle detection. (a) Schematic of the integrated optofluidic system with perpendicular excitation/collection geometry for detecting bio-molecules (b) SEM images of solid core and (c) liquid core ARROW waveguide cross-sections. Reproduced with permission from P. Measor, B. S. Phillips, A. Chen, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 5 (2011). Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Raman spectroscopy analysis using a DEP microfluidic platform. (a) Schematic of DEP-Raman system layout. (b) Plot of WO3 nanoparticle Raman spectra at different DEP frequencies, decreasing in frequency along the z-axis. Reproduced with permission from A. F. Chrimes, A. A. Kayani, K. Khoshmanesh, P. R. Stoddart, P. Mulvaney, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, Lab Chip 11, 5 (2011). Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Optofluidic device used for plasmonic transport of particles. (a) Schematic of optofluidic-plasmonic trapping device, consisting of a gold stripe in a microfluidic channel formed on a microscope glass slide. (b) Time sequence of scattered light images of particles in the microfluidic channel. Adapted from Ref. 183.
Thermophoretic transport of aptamer bindings: (a) The blood serum inside the capillary is locally heated with a focused IR laser, which is coupled into an epifluorescence microscope using a heat-reflecting “hot” mirror. (b) The fluorescence inside the capillary is imaged with a CCD camera, and the normalized fluorescence in the heated spot is plotted against time. The IR laser is switched on at t = 5 s, the fluorescence decreases as the temperature increases, and the labeled aptamers move away from the heated spot because of thermophoresis. When the IR laser is switched off, the molecules diffuse back. Reproduced with permission from P. Baaske, C. J. Wienken, P. Reineck, S. Duhr, and D. Braun, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 49, 12 (2010). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley and Sons.
Captured images of the discrimination of normal and abnormal oocytes using an optically induced DEP electrode scanning from left to right. Samples were manipulated at the DEP voltage of 10 Vp at 1 MHz. When the DEP signal was applied and the projected DEP electrodes were moved, only the normal oocyte were displaced in the direction of image pattern, while the abnormal oocytes remained at the initial position. Reprinted with permission from H. Hwang, D.-H. Lee, W. Choi, and J.-K. Park, Biomicrofluidics 3, 1 (2009). Copyright © 2009 American Institute of Physics.
Summary of particle manipulation methods, features, limitations, and references.
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