Sketch of the experimental setup employed.
Measured interfacial tension for glycerine/hexane against surfactant concentration (Span 80).
Typical aspect of a submerged electrospray in an inviscid dielectric liquid: Metallic capillary, Taylor cone, micro-liquid jet, and hydrosol with its characteristic plumed-shape. The outer needle diameter is 0.4 mm.
Comparison of droplet size distributions: glycerol droplets in air vs glycerol droplets in hexane. The glycerol conductivity is .
Electrical current against flow rate for glycerol samples in hexane. Insert: Minimum Flow rates for glycerol in hexane. Full circles correspond to the minimum flow rates of submerged electrosprays, the square corresponds to a measurement of the minimum flow rate of an electrospray in air for comparison.
Bidisperse droplet distributions for samples G5 (left) and G4 (right).
Visualization of the hydrosol plume in sample G4. (a) Below the critical flow rate, monodisperse hydrosol. (b)Above the critical flow rate where the droplet size is bidisperse (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.1] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.2]10.1063/1.4762854.110.1063/1.4762854.2
Dimensionless representation of droplet size vs injected flow rate. The following scaling laws are plotted: as that described in Eq. (2), as proposed by Higuera,36 and , asproposed by Gañán-Calvo.51
Visualization of a high K and high C case (a) with regular long exposures (1 ms). (b) with high speed imaging at 2000 fps (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.3]10.1063/1.4762854.3
Electrical current vs flow rate for different surfactant concentration: for surfactants-free samples (white circles), mild surfactant concentrations () (bluish circles) and high concentrations () (reddish circles).
Dimensionless electrical current vs flow rate for different surfactant concentrations: for surfactants-free samples (white circles), mild surfactant concentrations () (bluish circles), and high concentrations () (reddish circles).
Jet diameter variation with interfacial tension for sample of conductivity at flow rate . Insert: jet diameter is plotted against flow rate, following a scaling law for a sample saturated with surfactant (minimum ).
Visualization of the “dripping-jet” in the limit of low electrical conductivity and high surfactant concentration (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.4]10.1063/1.4762854.4
Conducting liquid properties.
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