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Surface tension effects on submerged electrosprays
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10.1063/1.4762854
/content/aip/journal/bmf/6/4/10.1063/1.4762854
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/bmf/6/4/10.1063/1.4762854

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Sketch of the experimental setup employed.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Measured interfacial tension for glycerine/hexane against surfactant concentration (Span 80).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Typical aspect of a submerged electrospray in an inviscid dielectric liquid: Metallic capillary, Taylor cone, micro-liquid jet, and hydrosol with its characteristic plumed-shape. The outer needle diameter is 0.4 mm.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of droplet size distributions: glycerol droplets in air vs glycerol droplets in hexane. The glycerol conductivity is .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Electrical current against flow rate for glycerol samples in hexane. Insert: Minimum Flow rates for glycerol in hexane. Full circles correspond to the minimum flow rates of submerged electrosprays, the square corresponds to a measurement of the minimum flow rate of an electrospray in air for comparison.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Bidisperse droplet distributions for samples G5 (left) and G4 (right).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Visualization of the hydrosol plume in sample G4. (a) Below the critical flow rate, monodisperse hydrosol. (b)Above the critical flow rate where the droplet size is bidisperse (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.1] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.2]10.1063/1.4762854.110.1063/1.4762854.2

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Dimensionless representation of droplet size vs injected flow rate. The following scaling laws are plotted: as that described in Eq. (2), as proposed by Higuera,36 and , asproposed by Gañán-Calvo.51

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Visualization of a high K and high C case (a) with regular long exposures (1 ms). (b) with high speed imaging at 2000 fps (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.3]10.1063/1.4762854.3

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Electrical current vs flow rate for different surfactant concentration: for surfactants-free samples (white circles), mild surfactant concentrations () (bluish circles) and high concentrations () (reddish circles).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Dimensionless electrical current vs flow rate for different surfactant concentrations: for surfactants-free samples (white circles), mild surfactant concentrations () (bluish circles), and high concentrations () (reddish circles).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Jet diameter variation with interfacial tension for sample of conductivity at flow rate . Insert: jet diameter is plotted against flow rate, following a scaling law for a sample saturated with surfactant (minimum ).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Visualization of the “dripping-jet” in the limit of low electrical conductivity and high surfactant concentration (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4762854.4]10.1063/1.4762854.4

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Liquid properties.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Conducting liquid properties.

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/content/aip/journal/bmf/6/4/10.1063/1.4762854
2012-10-24
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Surface tension effects on submerged electrosprays
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/bmf/6/4/10.1063/1.4762854
10.1063/1.4762854
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