Evolution of the CTC enrichment methods based on differences between cellular biomechanical properties: a) density gradient centrifugation in the presence of ficol, 16 (b) CTC enrichment using microfluidic filter, (c) CTCs enrichment using Si membranes. We filtered 1 ml of whole blood from a colorectal cancer patient using the microsieve described in Lim et al. Stainings using cytokeratin (CK) and CD45 reveals CK positive, CD45 negative cellular clusters trapped on the microsieve. Scale bar = 10 μm d) device based on CTCs size and deformability proposed by Tan et al. 51,52 (Reprinted with kind permission from G. E. Loeb, A. E. Walker, S. Uematsu, and B. W. Konigsmark, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 11(2), 195-210 (1977). Copyright 1977 Springer Science and Business Media (e) CTCs enrichment using inertial migration (Reprinted with permission from S. C. Hur, A. J. Mach, and D. Di Carlo, Biomicrofluidics 5(2) (2011). Copyright 2011, American Institute of Physics) (f) Size separation of CTCs in spiral microfluidic channels (Reprinted with permission from J. Sun, M. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Liu, G. Hu, and X. Jiang, Lab Chip (2012).Copyright 2012 Royal Society of Chemistry).
(a) Working principle of dielectrophoretic separation under continuous flow: one cell population that exhibit negative DEP is trapped in the wells while the other one (that express positive DEP) is flushed to the outlet (Reprinted with permission from C. Iliescu, G. Tresset, and G. L. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23) (2007). Copyright 2007 American Institute of Physics). (b) Working principle of EIS: two electrodes are placed in a microfluidic channel (Reprinted from C. Iliescu, D. P. Poenar, M. Carp, and F. C. Loe, Sens. Actuators B 123(1), 168-176 (2007). Copyright 2007 with permission from Elsevier). (c) Magnetophoretic separation of RBCs under continuous flow as presented by Jung and Han (Reprinted with permission from J. Jung and K.-H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223902-223902-223903 (2008).Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics).
Label-free isolation techniques of CTCs using microfluidic approaches.
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