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A numerical study on distributions during cryoprotectant loading caused by laminar flow in a microchannel
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10.1063/1.4793714
/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/2/10.1063/1.4793714
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/2/10.1063/1.4793714

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The three inlet T-Channel simulation geometry. The inset highlights the mesh resolution at the junction of the three inlets.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Comparing the velocity magnitudes of this fluid dynamics model with pure water at all inlets to analytical and experimental data. (a) A schematic of the geometry and the cross-sections where velocity was evaluated. (b) Scaled velocity magnitude as a function of scaled y-position and scaled z-position for an analytical expression for fluid flow in a rectangular duct, experimental results, and this model.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Mesh dependence test of three meshes at the highest flow rate evaluated. Coarse = 4 788 966 elements; Mid= 5 745 246 elements; Fine = 6 303 966 elements. (a) Velocity magnitude cross-section at a distance of 0.125 cm downstream from the junction of the inlets. (b) Concentration cross-section at a distance of 0.125 cm downstream from the junction of the inlets. (c) Concentration cross-section at the outlet. (d) Concentration profile along the axial length of the channel.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of our implementation of the KK equations to Song 9 for both one-step loading (cells exposed to for a time of ) and stepwise loading (cells exposed to for a time of , and then to for an additional ). (a) Normalized intracellular water volume as a function of normalized time. The inset describes the transient external CPA concentration to which the cells were exposed. (b) Normalized intracellular CPA concentration as a function of normalized time.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Varying fluid viscosity as a function of axial position in the microchannel. Data are taken along three parallel lines spanning the length of the channel from the junction of the inlets to the outlet. In the transverse direction, these lines correspond to one-half, one-quarter, and one-eighth of the channel width.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The transient behavior of a single cell at . Water exits the cell while CPA enters. The solid red line represents intracellular water volume; the dashed line represents intracellular moles of CPA.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Transient concentration profiles for one representative particle out of the 250 particles tracked. The solid line showsthe extracellular CPA concentration; the dashed line shows the intracellular CPA concentration. Each plot displays a different value of α, showing how this parameter changes the final CPA loading. As α increases, the loading moves further from completion. The α values correspond to flow rates of: (a) 0.08 μl/min, (b) 0.1 μl/min, (c) 0.2 μl/min, (d) 0.4 μl/min, and (e) 3 μl/min.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) The cellular residence time distributions over the entire cell population for each flow rate simulated. The indicates the mean residence time, while the represents the maximum residence time, and the shows the minimum residence time. (b) A histogram of the cellular residence times at 0.2 μl/min ( ). (c)-(e) Histograms of cellular residence times at 0.1 μl/min ( ), 0.3 μl/min ( ), and 0.5 μl/min ( ), respectively.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) The internal concentration distributions over the entire cell population for each flow rate simulated. The indicates the mean internal concentration, while the represents the maximum internal concentration, and the shows the minimum internal concentration. (b) A histogram of the internal concentration at 0.2 μl/min ( ). (c)-(e) Histograms of internal concentrations at 0.1 μl/min ( ), 0.3 μl/min ( ), and 0.5 μl/min ( ), respectively.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Model parameters for the Kedem-Katchalsky equations 9 and fluid dynamics equations.

Generic image for table
Table II.

The range of α's tested.

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/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/2/10.1063/1.4793714
2013-03-11
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A numerical study on distributions during cryoprotectant loading caused by laminar flow in a microchannel
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/2/10.1063/1.4793714
10.1063/1.4793714
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