Schematics of all constituent layers [(a)-(c)] and modes of operation [(d)-(e)] of the two developed fluidic design concepts: top part of the chip containing holes for access to cell culture and gas recirculation (a), bottom part of the chip containing a fluidic channel, a membrane, and a well before sealing with the top part for the flow-through (b) and diffusion-based (c) designs, operational principle shown on example of a single well for flow-through (d) and diffusion-based (e) platforms.
Break-out of all functional layers (a); a photograph of the assembly process and an alignment jig (b); a photograph of an assembled device during the fluidic test (c); HRSEM image of the polycarbonate membranes before (d) and after (e) autoclaving and UV treatment; a photograph of a culture well loaded with cells after 24 h incubation at 37 °C and 5% CO2 atmosphere (F).
Operational principle and the fluid resistance schemes (the limiting fluidic resistances are highlighted in blue) for flow-through platform (a) and diffusion-based platform (b); the development of concentration profile inside the wells with time for the flow through (c) and diffusion-based (d) platforms; the dependence of a liquid level inside a culture well on the flow rate and the characteristic dimensions of the fluidic structure or the flow through (e) and diffusive (f) platforms (diameter of the membrane cross section and height of the outlet channel for the flow through and diffusive platforms, respectively) during the device operation, the dependence of normalized concentration profile inside a culture well on time of both platforms (G).
Results of the viability test on HL60 following exposure to toxic MMC and incubation at 37 °C and in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 24/48 h: optical microscopy images of cell samples 0 μM MMC (a), 50 μM MMC (b) incubated off-chip for comparison and 0 μM MMC (c), 50 μM MMC (d) taken after incubation on-a-chip; results of the viability test on HL60 with MMC for the diffusion-based platform for MMC concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 μM (e).
Geometries of the flow-through (top) and diffusive (bottom) platforms.
Parameters used in the CFD modelling for the flow-through and diffusive platforms.
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