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Microfluidic device for trapping and monitoring three dimensional multicell spheroids using electrical impedance spectroscopy
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10.1063/1.4809590
/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/3/10.1063/1.4809590
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/3/10.1063/1.4809590

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Top left (a) is a cross sectional simulation depicting the potential gradient into the channel. Middle left (b) is a cross sectional simulation illustrating the extension of the potential intensity into the channel due to the dielectric properties of the polystyrene particle.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Top left (a) is an AutoCad rendering of the final microfluidic EIS device. (b) is an AutoCad rendering of the channel cross section including, trap (posts) top and bottom set of electrodes and PDMS gasket outlining the channel. (c) is an AutoCad rendering of the channel from a top-skewed view illustrating trap (posts) top and bottom set of electrodes and PDMS gasket outlining the channel.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Illustration of the first six fabrication steps (A–F) perfomed on both top and bottom sections of the device, illustrates additional fabrication steps of bottom section 250 m SU-8 posts (step G), illustrates additional fabrication steps of top section allowing for channel inlet and outlet (step H), illustration of SU-8 master mold to form PDMS gaskets and final assembly procedure (step M) illustrating the bottom, gasket, and top sections. The offset assembly allows access to the contact pads

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Photograph of the final device. Note the yellow area is the gold contact pad (where the probe makes contact), while the dark areas on the right is the chrome layer between the glass and gold contact. The device is shown next to a US 10 cent piece for size comprehension. (b) Optical magnification of electrode and trap area of the device looking top down slightly skewed.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Image of the chip in a Jig which is held together with thumb screws; Pogo pins make contact to the chip and are connected to SMB using a PCB to the Agilent 4294a impedance analyzer.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Impedance magnitude of cell culture medium and dilutions of medium. (b) Percent change in impedance magnitude due to the decrease of molarity. (c) Phase of medium dilutions throughout frequency spectrum. (d) Phase change throughout frequency spectrum demonstrating maximum change centered around 40 kHz.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Chart of the inverse relationship between solution resistance and diluted cell medium. Lumped element model of electrode electrolyte system.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) Impedance magnitude of cell culture medium and polystyrene particle size. (b) Phase diagrams of medium and polystyrene beads. (c) Percent change in impedance of bead size normalized to cell culture medium. (d) Phase change due to bead size normalized to cell culture medium.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Image of the 129 m diameter spheroid in culture before perfusion. (b) Image of the 161 m diameter spheroid in culture before perfusion. (c) Image of the 320 m diameter spheroid in culture before perfusion. (d) The same spheroid from Figure 9(c) trapped between the electrodes of the fluidic chip. Only the top electrodes are seen in this image.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) Percent change of magnitude due to the introduction of the MCSs using cell medium as zero baseline. (b) Phase change due to the introduction of the MCSs using cell medium as a zero baseline.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Data comparing diameter relative change in magnitude with respect to diameters of both spheroids and polystyrene beads.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Extracted parameter details following the equivalent circuit model represented in Figure 8 . These parameters demonstrate the change in solution resistance due to dilution of medium with DI water.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Extracted parameter details following the equivalent circuit model represented in Figure 8 . These parameters demonstrate the change in resistance due to introduction of polystyrene beads of differing size.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Extracted parameter details following the equivalent circuit model represented in Figure 8 . These parameters demonstrate the change in solution resistance due to the introduction of MCF-7 MCS.

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/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/3/10.1063/1.4809590
2013-06-05
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Microfluidic device for trapping and monitoring three dimensional multicell spheroids using electrical impedance spectroscopy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/bmf/7/3/10.1063/1.4809590
10.1063/1.4809590
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