Simulation conditions: (a) cut view, (b) top view.
DEP force versus gold thickness and distance from the electrode: cell's diameter = 20 μm and CM factor = 0.4 (frequencies between 400 kHz and 1 MHz). (a) Colors represent log(FDEP); (b) evolution of max DEP force at different distances from the pad.
Simulation of a pairing and fusion structure (two pads) for different gold thicknesses. (a) The electric field and the DEP force (arrows), (b) comparison of the electric field in the pairing zone at 10 μm height.
Pairing and fusion microarray. (a) 3D simulated structure showing electric field topology and DEP direction (arrow, case positive), (b) electric field distribution along a raw of pads (continuous curve) and without pads (discontinuous curve).
Normalized transmembrane potential of paired cells inside and outside the trap compared to Schwan law.
Microfabrication results: (a) global view of the fabricated chip electrically and fluidically connected on its PCB holder, (b) SEM views and dimensions of the pairing and fusion structure.
Trapping and pairing structure, before and after the application of DEP force. (a), (b) Medium density of cells, (c), (d) higher density of cells; even with a high cell density, the cells stay in pairs; scale bars 20 μm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4813062.1]doi: 10.1063/1.4813062.1.
Dynamics of cell fusion in one pairing structure induced by electric pulses, (a) one pair, (b) two simultaneous fusions on the same pad, no multicellular product, (c) parallel fusions (indicated by white arrows), and a zoom on the fusion of two different cell sizes. Scale bar 20 μm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4813062.2] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4813062.3]doi: 10.1063/1.4813062.2.
Culture tests of the fused hybridoma (B16F10) 3 h and 24 h after electrofusion and MTT test on fused and adhered cells. Magnification 40.
Summary of the effect of gold pad thickness.
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