Schematic of the microfluidic chip. The channels have a 20 μm (depth) × 50 μm (width) cross section.
Schematic of the experimental setup.
(a) Schematic of oil droplet accumulation at the ITP transition zone. (b) Micrographs taken at different times showing the accumulation of oil droplets at the ITP transition zone in a system without PVP.
(a) Time series showing the coalescence of two droplets. (b) Time series showing the growth of a droplet by successive coalescence events. (c) Time series showing the formation of an oil film after droplet growth.
(a) Droplet diameter as a function of time owing to successive coalescence events, based on a sample of 12 droplets. (b) Corresponding distribution of droplet growth rates. (c) Corresponding distribution of maximum droplet diameters before merging with the channel walls.
(a)–(f) Time series showing the formation of a droplet agglomerate in a system with PVP.
Trajectory of a single droplet trapped in a vortex behind the ITP transition zone.
Rotational velocity of droplets inside the vortex structures as a function of applied voltage.
Pictorial representation of a possible mechanism explaining the formation of vortices behind the ITP transition zone.
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