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Simulation of malaria-infected red blood cells in microfluidic channels: Passage and blockage
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Passage and blockage of microfluidic channels of different sizes by iRBC in the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of infection. The flow goes from the right to the left. Reprinted with permission from Shelby “A microfluidic model for single-cell capillary obstruction by -infected erythrocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 14618–14622 (2003). Copyright 2003 The National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The healthy RBC and the ring-stage iRBC have the same biconcave shape described by Eq. (9) , with the smallest and largest thickness being and . The spatial coordinates are marked in microns.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The cell geometries at (a) the early trophozoite stage, with , and (b) the late trophozoite stage, with .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The iRBC has a spheroidal shape at the schizont stage, with diameter and thickness .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Tank-treading: temporal evolution of the cell length and width for . Three of our simulations, at coarse and fine spatial resolutions with and without bending, are compared with the result of Sui which does not include bending elasticity.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) The average RBC length and width as functions of the capillary number . (b) The dimensionless frequency of tank-treading, scaled by the shear rate , as a function of the capillary number .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Schematic of the computational domain. The overall dimensions of the channel are , and , with three segments of equal length . The narrow section in the middle has a width , and for the narrow, medium, and wide channels.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The trajectories of RBCs through the narrow channel ( ) for three values of the shear modulus . The insets show top-view snapshots of the cell during the transit with color contours of the local stretching γ of Eq. (11) , at and for (red arrows) and at for (blue arrow).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The transit time , made dimensionless by , as a function of the membrane shear modulus for the three channels.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Steady-state shape of the iRBC in the early trophozoite, late trophozoite, and schizont stages after it blocks the narrow channel ( ). The length of the tongue , defined as the distance between the cell front and the channel entry and scaled by the channel length , is plotted as a function of the excess surface area ratio . Color contours of the surface stretching γ are also shown in the insets.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The transit time through the medium and wide channels as functions of the excess surface area ratio . The transit time is scaled by .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Trajectories of the schizont-stage iRBC in the wide channel ( ) with a parasite of different sizes.  = 0 indicates a baseline case without parasite, and the insets are snapshots of the parasite configuration for the other two trajectories.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Dimensions of the healthy and infected red cell in different stages. denotes the of the cell, where is the effective cell radius defined as the radius of a sphere having the volume of the cell. The last column indicates the dimensions of the parasite.

Generic image for table
Table II.

The passage and blockage of healthy and infected red blood cells through microfluidic channels of different size.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Simulation of malaria-infected red blood cells in microfluidic channels: Passage and blockage