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Arrhythmogenesis in the heart: Multiscale modeling of the effects of defibrillation shocks and the role of electrophysiological heterogeneity
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10.1063/1.2430637
/content/aip/journal/chaos/17/1/10.1063/1.2430637
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/chaos/17/1/10.1063/1.2430637
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color) (A) Rabbit ventricular model: geometry and fiber orientation (denoted by short white lines). (B) Action potential from the LR1(RV) and LR1(LV) ionic models. (C) The division of the ventricle into an LV region (region with short action potential duration, colored in blue) and RV/septal region (long action potential region, colored in green) for the study of VF maintenance mechanisms. E1 denotes the pacing site from which the ventricles were paced at a basic cycle length. E2 is the electrode site used in VF induction, from which frequency pulses were given. (D) Experimental preparation for shock-induced arrhythmia study. The transmembrane potential distribution in the ventricles corresponds to the seventh pacing stimulus (given from the apex).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color) Transmembrane potential distributions at time of shock delivery (panels A and B, anterior epicardial view) and at shock end (panels C and D, anterior epicardial and transmural views) for a shock applied at coupling intervals (CIs) of 100, 130, 160, and for and polarities, respectively. In panels (E) and (F), the epicardial surface has been rendered semitransparent to allow visualization, in pink, of the filaments at the end of the same shock as in panels (C) and (D). Anterior epicardial and apical views are shown in panels (E) and (F). Color scale is saturated, i.e., transmembrane potentials above and below appear red and blue, respectively.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Percentage of myocardial nodes that are of transmembrane potential above (black bars) and below (gray bars) at the end of a shock applied at CIs in the range 100 to .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color) Evolution of postshock electrical activity following an shock of strength applied at CIs of 100, 130, 160, and . Color scale as in Fig. 2 .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color) Evolution of postshock electrical activity following an shock of strength applied at CIs of 100, 130, 160, and . Color scale as in Fig. 2 .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color) Transmembrane potential distributions on the anterior and the posterior of the ventricles after the end of shocks applied at (A and C) and (B and D) for and polarity. Phase singularities on the epicardium are marked with solid black circles. White arrows indicate direction of propagation. Color scale as in Fig. 2 .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color) Transmembrane potential distribution for of VF (in intervals of ) for heterogeneous APD, LV APD, and RV APD ventricular models. The time corresponds to the end of the VF-inducing high-frequency pacing. For each case, the top image is anterior epicardial view and the bottom image is apical view with the epicardium rendered semitransparent to show the scroll-wave filaments (colored pink). The dashed black line at over the heterogeneous APD model transmembarne potential map denotes the border between regions characterized with a different APD. Epicardial phase singularities are marked with solid black circles.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Average number of filaments (over the of VF) for heterogeneous APD, LV APD, and RV APD ventricular models. The total average number of filaments is broken down into filaments in the LV, septal, and RV regions. The boundaries of the three different ventricular regions, as used for filament sorting, are outlined below the graph.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color) Top panels: Posterior epicardial views of transmembrane potential distribution in the heterogeneous APD ventricles. Epicardial phase singularities are marked with solid black circles. Direction of wave front propagation is indicated with white arrows. In the top left image, the black arrow points towards the rotor that is the source of the wave fronts propagating towards the RV. Bottom panels: the same view but with the epicardium rendered semitransparent to display scroll-wave filaments (colored pink). In the bottom left image, the black arrow points towards a new filament formation. The same filament (colored in black) is shown in the other two bottom panels; its ends are colored in white to underscore the fact that it is a U-type filament (both ends of the filament are attached to the epicardial surface). The white dashed line at the and panels is the border between regions characterized with a different APD.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color) (A) Cross sections through the ventricle with mapped dominant frequency (DF) distribution for each ventricular model. (B) DF ranges, in intervals, and the percentage of the ventricular volume that exhibits a particular DF for each ventricular model. (C) DF ranges, in intervals, and the percentage of ventricular volume in the heterogeneous APD ventricular model, either of long APD (RV/septal region) or of short APD (LV region), that exhibits the particular DF.

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/content/aip/journal/chaos/17/1/10.1063/1.2430637
2007-03-30
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Arrhythmogenesis in the heart: Multiscale modeling of the effects of defibrillation shocks and the role of electrophysiological heterogeneity
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/chaos/17/1/10.1063/1.2430637
10.1063/1.2430637
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