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Chromosome evolution with naked eye: Palindromic context of the life origin
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10.1063/1.2826631
/content/aip/journal/chaos/18/1/10.1063/1.2826631
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/chaos/18/1/10.1063/1.2826631
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (A) Chromosome 12 of S. cerevisiae: Telomeres (small rectangles) and a small part (two units from 150) of the cluster of ribosomal RNAs (prolate rectangle). (B) Chromosome 1 of S. cerevisiae (about ) containing an IGP (ellipse). (C) The wavelet-transformation of the region 24.5–28 Kb representing the family of flocculation genes FLO1 and FLO9 in the subtelomeric region (see rectangles in B).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Comparison of human and chimpanzee chromosome 22 (Ref. 14 ), containing about and nucleotides, respectively. Similar selected fragments are marked by the same geometric configuration. The first nucleotides of the human chromosome 22 are still unknown. In these maps one can easily recognize numerous IGPs.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color) Y human chromosome containing about (a) and its greatest Palindrome 1 [(b) and grey rectangle in (a)] with DAZ genes [gray ellipse in (b)]. Surprisingly, in the 2D plane, the shape of the Y human chromosome looks like the letter “Z.”

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color) The part in the X human chromosome (a) and its exact palindrome with a duplication and a small rearrangement (b). This palindrome contains a GAGE gene family.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color) A possible schematic mechanism of the creation of the duplicated palindrome.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The first four human chromosomes. The nucleotide lengths are (from top to bottom), 1: ; 2: ; 3: ; 4: .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color) (A) Human chromosome 6 : A palindrome (large ellipse) and its most correlated parts (small ellipses within the large ellipse). (B) Human chromosome 9 : A inverse palindrome region (large ellipse). Different parts of its inversion are shown by various grey tints colors. of this chromosome are still unknown.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The first three parts of 12 human (left column) and 12 chimpanzee (right column) chromosomes. The length of each part is about .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The last three parts of 12 human (left column) and 12 chimpanzee (right column) chromosomes. The length of each part is about (except for the last part about ).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color) (A) Chromosome 1 of the eukaryotic microorganism E. cuniculi. (B) Chromosome 9 of T. brucei related to parasitic eukaryotic microorganisms. (C) Chromosome 5 (E) of the fungi Y. lipolytica. (D) Genome sequences of R. prowazekii and R. conorii: “the rotation angle ” of the 2D DNA map.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color) A fragment of human chromosome 8, in length, containing the MYC gene in the center, marked by black color (a) and a fragment of human chromosome 11, in length, containing the HBB gene in the center, marked by black color (b).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

The chromosome of N. equitans ( , top), and the chromosome of W. brevipalpis ( , bottom).

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/content/aip/journal/chaos/18/1/10.1063/1.2826631
2008-02-01
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Chromosome evolution with naked eye: Palindromic context of the life origin
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/chaos/18/1/10.1063/1.2826631
10.1063/1.2826631
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