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Contribution of convection to spatiotemporal stripe patterns formed by Ag and Sb coelectrodeposition
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10.1063/1.3413962
/content/aip/journal/chaos/20/2/10.1063/1.3413962
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/chaos/20/2/10.1063/1.3413962

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Optical microscope images of three kinds of traveling stripe patterns in the vertical electrode condition.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Phase diagrams of spatiotemporal patterns appearing on the electrode surface for the three electrode setups. (a) Setup A: vertical electrode setup. (b) Setup B: horizontal electrode setup in which the working electrode is located above the counterelectrode and the Au(111) surface faces upward. (c) Setup C: horizontal electrode setup in which the working electrode is located above the counterelectrode and the Au(111) surface faces downward. The gray solid arrows indicate the direction of natural convective flow. The gray dotted arrows in (b) and (c) represent the flow of the bulk electrolyte solution, following natural convection.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The support stage used to fix the electrode horizontally. (a) Upper surface of the topmost square acrylic plate. (b) Under surface of the topmost square acrylic plate. (c) Upper surface of the lower acrylic plate.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Time series of optical microscope images of the surface of the working electrode in phase (b-1) in Fig. 2(b) . (e) and (f) show time-series expanded images of the area surrounded by the rectangle in (a), where small propagating target patterns emerge. Time lapses in (a)–(f) start from the onset of Ag and Sb coelectrodeposition (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3413962.1]doi: 10.1063/1.3413962.1.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Time series of optical microscope images of the surface of the working electrode in phase (c-3) in Fig. 2(c) at an early stage after the start of electrodeposition. In (a)–(d), images that have been time averaged over the pattern periods are subtracted from the respective raw grayscale images to enhance the image contrast of the small target pattern. The images are shown in pseudocolor. Time lapses in (a)–(d) start from the onset of Ag and Sb coelectrodeposition (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3413962.2]doi: 10.1063/1.3413962.2.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Time series of optical microscope images of the surface of the working electrode in phase (c-3) in Fig. 2(c) at 11 m, 30 s after the start of electrodeposition. The rectangle encloses the area where the big target pattern is emerging. The two subsequent target patterns are shown. Time lapses in (b)–(e) are relative to (a) (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3413962.3]doi: 10.1063/1.3413962.3.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Ratio of the Ag atomic percentage to the Sb atomic percentage for the electrode surface. ▲ and ▼: the values for the upper and lower areas of the working electrode samples created under the vertical electrode setup A, respectively. When the electrode surface is uniform in the uniformly black and white phases, only the results of element analysis for the lower or upper part are shown. ●: the values for the working electrode samples under the horizontal electrode setup B. ◼: the values for the working electrode samples under the horizontal electrode setup C. The dotted lines show the bifurcated values for the ratio of Ag to Sb, i.e., 5 and 25. The phase diagrams of Fig. 2 are shown above the graph of the ratios of Ag to Sb. In the phase diagram, the dark gray and light gray areas indicate the uniformly black phases and the phases where the patterns with stripe structures appear, respectively.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The potential of the working electrode vs SHE at which patterns appear. ●: the working electrode under the horizontal electrode setup B. ◼: the working electrode under the horizontal electrode setup C. The dotted line indicates the critical potential for Sb reduction (−680 mV). The phase diagrams in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c) are shown above the graph of the measured potentials. In the phase diagrams, the dark gray and light gray areas indicate the uniformly black phases and the phases where the patterns with stripe structures appear, respectively.

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/content/aip/journal/chaos/20/2/10.1063/1.3413962
2010-06-17
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Contribution of convection to spatiotemporal stripe patterns formed by Ag and Sb coelectrodeposition
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/chaos/20/2/10.1063/1.3413962
10.1063/1.3413962
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