Typical performance response curve of an infrastructure system following the occurrence of a hazard.
A geographical representation of the power transmission grid in Harris County, Texas.
Flow chart to simulate estimates of real system performance curves P(t) and target performance curves TP(t) during a future period 0 to Tf.
(a) The logarithmic transformation of resilience –log10(1 − R(Tf )) under several typical values of post-blackout improvement rate, u. The error bars with 98% confidence intervals are also displayed. (b) Resilience with Tf = 1 and 10 under different post-blackout improvement rates, u.
Resilience variation for Tf = 1 and 10 under different SA parameter settings, with u = 1.01: (a) initial failure probability p 0, (b) OPF dispatch probability δ, and (c) emergency response time te . The error bars with 98% confidence intervals are also displayed.
Hourly load profiles for load substations with and without demand management.
(a) Logarithmic form of resilience –log10(1 − R(Tf )) under traditional load profile and several typical daily load profiles with demand management; (b) Resilience variation at Tf = 1 and 10 under demand management with distinct average daily load profiles, 〈L〉.
(a) Logarithmic form of resilience –log10(1 − R(Tf )) under several typical ndg numbers of distributed generators with the random deployment strategy, including ndg = 0, 5, 15, 25, which account for 0%, 8.8%, 26.3%, and 43.9% of the total number of load substations, respectively; (b) resilience variation at Tf = 1 and 10 under random deployment strategy S1 and minimum network efficiency strategy S2 with different numbers of distributed generators, ndg.
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