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Global structure of regular tori in a generic 4D symplectic map
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For the case of generic 4D symplectic maps with a mixed phase space, we investigate the global organization of regular tori. For this, we compute elliptic 1-tori of two coupled standard maps and display them in a 3D phase-space slice. This visualizes how all regular 2-tori are organized around a skeleton of elliptic 1-tori in the 4D phase space. The 1-tori occur in two types of one-parameter families: (α) Lyapunov families emanating from elliptic-elliptic periodic orbits, which are observed to exist even far away from them and beyond major resonance gaps, and (β) families originating from rank-1 resonances. At resonance gaps of both types of families either (i) periodic orbits exist, similar to the Poincaré-Birkhoff theorem for 2D maps, or (ii) the family may form large bends. In combination, these results allow for describing the hierarchical structure of regular tori in the 4D phase space analogously to the islands-around-islands hierarchy in 2D maps.
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