Volume 25, Issue 9, September 2015
Index of content:
- FOCUS ISSUE: THE 25th ANNIVERSARY OF CHAOS: PERSPECTIVES ON NONLINEAR SCIENCE—PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
25(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4915527View Description Hide Description
Experiments with superconducting microwave cavities have been performed in our laboratory for more than two decades. The purpose of the present article is to recapitulate some of the highlights achieved. We briefly review (i) results obtained with flat, cylindrical microwave resonators, so-called microwave billiards, concerning the universal fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues of classically chaotic systems with no, a threefold and a broken symmetry; (ii) summarize our findings concerning the wave-dynamical chaos in three-dimensional microwave cavities; (iii) present a new approach for the understanding of the phenomenon of dynamical tunneling which was developed on the basis of experiments that were performed recently with unprecedented precision, and finally, (iv) give an insight into an ongoing project, where we investigate universal properties of (artificial) graphene with superconducting microwave photonic crystals that are enclosed in a microwave resonator, i.e., so-called Dirac billiards.
25(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4915831View Description Hide Description
To characterize transport in a deterministic dynamical system is to compute exit time distributions from regions or transition time distributions between regions in phase space. This paper surveys the considerable progress on this problem over the past thirty years. Primary measures of transport for volume-preserving maps include the exiting and incoming fluxes to a region. For area-preserving maps, transport is impeded by curves formed from invariant manifolds that form partial barriers, e.g., stable and unstable manifolds bounding a resonance zone or cantori, the remnants of destroyed invariant tori. When the map is exact volume preserving, a Lagrangian differential form can be used to reduce the computation of fluxes to finding a difference between the actions of certain key orbits, such as homoclinic orbits to a saddle or to a cantorus. Given a partition of phase space into regions bounded by partial barriers, a Markov tree model of transport explains key observations, such as the algebraic decay of exit and recurrence distributions.
25(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4915529View Description Hide Description
Dynamical disease refers to illnesses that are associated with striking changes in the dynamics of some bodily function. There is a large literature in mathematics and physics which proposes mathematical models for the physiological systems and carries out analyses of the properties of these models using nonlinear dynamics concepts involving analyses of the stability and bifurcations of attractors. This paper discusses how these concepts can be applied to medicine.
25(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4915528View Description Hide Description
Invariant manifolds are key objects in describing how trajectories partition the phase spaces of a dynamical system. Examples include stable, unstable, and center manifolds of equilibria and periodic orbits, quasiperiodic invariant tori, and slow manifolds of systems with multiple timescales. Changes in these objects and their intersections with variation of system parameters give rise to global bifurcations. Bifurcation manifolds in the parameter spaces of multi-parameter families of dynamical systems also play a prominent role in dynamical systems theory. Much progress has been made in developing theory and computational methods for invariant manifolds during the past 25 years. This article highlights some of these achievements and remaining open problems.