Articles in the News
Dynamical glucometry: Use of multiscale entropy analysis in diabetes
Madalena D. Costa, Teresa Henriques, Medha N. Munshi, Alissa R. Segal, and Ary L. Goldberger
Chaos 24, 033139 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4894537
Press release: 09/23/2014
Diabetes: Complexity Lost
"Dynamical glucometry," a novel way of looking at information hidden in blood sugar readings, may uncover fundamental new ways of understanding diabetes and its treatment
WASHINGTON, D.C., September 23, 2014 -- For millions of people in the United States living with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, measuring the daily rise and fall of blood glucose (sugar) is a way of life.
How well-connected is the surface of the global ocean?
Gary Froyland, Robyn M. Stuart and Erik van Sebille
Chaos 24, 033126 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4892530
Press release: 09/02/2014
Giant Garbage Patches Help Redefine Ocean Boundaries
WASHINGTON D.C., September 2, 2014 -- The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is an area of environmental concern between Hawaii and California where the ocean surface is marred by scattered pieces of plastic, which outweigh plankton in that part of the ocean and pose risks to fish, turtles and birds that eat the trash. Scientists believe the garbage patch is but one of at least five, each located in the center of large, circular ocean currents called gyres that suck in and trap floating debris.
Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method
Chaos 24, 024412 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4884495
Press release: 06/30/2014
Reigning in Chaos in Particle Colliders Yields Big Results
WASHINGTON D.C., June 30, 2014 -- When beams with trillions of particles go zipping around at near light speed, there’s bound to be some chaos. Limiting that chaos in particle colliders is crucial for the groundbreaking results such experiments are designed to deliver.
Does size matter?
B. A. Carreras, D. E. Newman, Ian Dobson
Chaos 24, 023104 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4868393
Press Release: 4/7/2014
Is the Power Grid too Big?
Right-sizing the grid could reduce blackout risk, according to new analysis in the journal 'Chaos'
Some 90 years ago, British polymath J.B.S. Haldane proposed that for every animal there is an optimal size -- one which allows it to make best use of its environment and the physical laws that govern its activities, whether hiding, hunting, hoofing or hibernating. Today, three researchers are asking whether there is a "right" size another type of huge beast: the U.S. power grid.
Opinion Formation on Social Media: An Empirical Approach
Fei Xiong and Yun Liu
Chaos 24, 013130 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4866011
Press release: 03/11/2014
How Twitter Shapes Public Opinion
Dominant, Majority Viewpoints Emerge Quickly on Twitter and, Once Stabilized, Become Difficult to Change -- According to New Study in the Journal CHAOS
WASHINGTON D.C., March 11, 2014 -- How exactly does Twitter, with its 241 million users tweeting out 500 million messages daily, shape public opinion?
Seminal Papers from Chaos
Cardiac arrhythmias and circle maps-A classical problem
Chaos 1, 13 (1991);
Cardiac arrhythmias and circle mappings
V. I. Arnold
Chaos 1, 20 (1991);
The journal Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science was conceived following a series of conferences involving nonlinear scientists in the United States and the (then) Soviet Union that began in the summer of 1989. As in many fields, the researchers discovered that there had been many independent discoveries on the two sides of the iron curtain that divided these scientific communities or so many years during the cold war. But in the problem of the nonlinear dynamics of the heart, the situation was still more intriguing and full of intrigue, and two classic papers published in the first issue of Chaos were finally able to tell the story. The article by V. I. Arnold, “Cardiac Arrhythmias and Circle Mappings” (add reference and link) describes work carried out as part of his 1959 diploma dissertation under the supervision of A. N. Kolmogorov. Kolmogorov declared that the application of circle maps to heartbeats “is not one of the classic problems one ought to work on,” and so this work remained unpublished until it appeared in a 1989 volume of the collected papers of I. M. Gelfand. Nearly twenty-five years following Arnold’s original work, Leon Glass and his collaborators had independently discovered and published the essentially identical results. This is described in the article (add reference and link). One of the goals of Chaos is to treat all interesting and relevant nonlinear problems as “classics” and to ensure that barriers to communication across national boundaries will never again occur and that the dissemination of results among nonlinear scientists around the world is open, transparent, and rapid.
Varieties of spiral wave behavior: An experimentalist’s approach to the theory of excitable media
Arthur T. Winfree
Chaos 1, 303 (1991);
In this classic example of “experimental mathematics,” Arthur Winfree conducted a computationally exhaustive study of the behavior of the FitzHugh–Nagumo model for describing biological patterns, in particular spiral waves. This pioneering work established that by varying two key parameters, the model could capture a wide range of seemingly distinct pattern forming behavior in experimental biological systems, thereby validating the model as a faithful representation of the biology.
Transition of chemical turbulence
Q. Ouyang and Harry L. Swinney
Chaos 1, 411 (1991);
The existence of oscillations and spatial patterns in chemical reactions has been a subject of great interest—and controversy!—since the 1920s. Initially viewed as impossible, chemical oscillations and spatial patterns were shown to be a natural consequence of nonlinear phenomena in systems far from equilibrium and were observed in many chemical reactions. In this important experimental study, Ouyang and Swinney drove a chlorite–iodide–malonic acid reaction still farther from equilibrium and established a transition from the regime of stationary spatial patterns systems to a regime of chemical “turbulence,” which is characterized by the continuous motion of patterns within domains and of grain boundaries between the domains. The transition is accompanied by a large increase in the number of defects in the patterns, making it an important example of defect-mediated turbulence.
Quantum-chaotic scattering effects in semiconductor microstructures
Harold U. Baranger, Rodolfo A. Jalabert and A. Douglas Stone
Chaos 3, 665 (1993);
“Quantum” or “wave” chaos was long considered primarily the purview of theoreticians interested in the complexities of energy level statistics or semiclassical quantization. In this important contribution, Baranger and his coauthors showed that the difference between chaotic and regular scattering in a real semiconductor microstructure produces a qualitative difference in the fluctuation spectra and the weak-localization line shapes of chaotic and nonchaotic structures, thereby establishing a firm link between the theory and experimental observations.
Velocity statistics in excited granular media
W. Losert, D. G. W. Cooper, J. Delour, A. Kudrolli, and J. P. Gollub
Chaos 9, 682 (1999);
Over the past decade, considerable experimental and theoretical work has focused on predicting and observing the differences between granular media and ordinary gases or fluids. In this important contribution, Losert and his collaborators determine the statistical properties of the velocity distribution in a vibrating layer of granules. The fundamental distinction that collisions in the granular medium are inelastic leads to a non-Gaussian velocity distribution. This result contrasts to that in normal gases but is consistent with an earlier theoretical prediction for granular media.