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IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films
1.See, for example, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, edited by E. D. Palik (Academic, New York, 1985).
2.IMD can be downloaded from http://www.bell-labs.com/user/windt/idl.
3.B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, (1993). In addition to the data contained therein, the Center For X-Ray Optics (CXRO), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, maintains an active database of atomic scattering factors; these data are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov and have been included in IMD, courtesy of E. M. Gullikson.
4.IDL is available from Research System, Inc., Boulder, CO, http://www.rsinc.com.
5.See, for example, J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), pp. 281–282.
6.Note that in our definition of the Fresnel coefficients we have assumed that (a) each material is optically isotropic, and (b) the magnetic permeability is the same in both regions.
7.D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
8.L. Névot and P. Croce, Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761 (1980).
9.M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).
10.D. W. Marquardt, J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431 (1963).
11.P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1969).
12.M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, Astrophys. J. 208, 177 (1976).
13.W. Cash, Astron. Astrophys. 52, 307 (1976).
14.A periodic multilayer is defined here as a group of layers that is repeated times to make a stack consisting of a total of layers.
15.Due to the particular optical properties of amorphous carbon films, namely, the 180° phase change for transmittance values near 10% at certain deep UV wavelengths that are used in photolithography for the manufacture of integrated circuits, phase-shift masks (used to compensate for the effects of diffraction in order to print features smaller than the exposure wavelength) made from such films are currently being developed. Such films are also being developed for use as variable transmission apertures, which can be used to greatly enhance the process latitude of DUV lithography tools. See, for example, R. A. Cirelli, M. Mkrtchyn, G. P. Watson, L. E. Trimble, G. R. Weber, D. L. Windt, and O. Nalamasu, Proc. SPIE 3334, (1998).
16.See http://www.lucent.com/SCALPEL for a complete bibliography of papers describing SCALPEL technology.
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