Circuit model for the unit of the CRLH TL. and are loaded capacitors and inductors, respectively. The rectangles denote interconnecting transmission lines. is the characteristic impendence of the microstrip sections.
Photograph of the CRLH TL. Loaded elements are and . The length of the unit cell is .
Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for measuring the CRLH TL in the time domain.
Time-domain experimental results. , , , and mean wave forms at the input port, the second unit, the forth unit, and the sixth unit, respectively. The cross marks show the negative phase propagation, and the envelope peaks show the positive group delay.
Time-domain experimental results for conventional transmission line showing parallel phase velocity and group velocity. The cross marks and the envelope of the wave forms at , , , and demonstrate that the phase velocity and group velocity are parallel.
Time-domain simulation results with cross marks. , , , and mean wave forms at the input port, the second unit, the forth unit, and the sixth unit. The cross marks show the negative phase propagation, and the envelope shows the positive group delay.
Dispersion relations of the CRLH TL obtained by a frequency-domain method and theoretical values.
All results for the phase and group velocity.
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