Schematic diagram of experimental setup for proton acceleration.
Dependences of keV x-ray signal and observed maximum proton energy on target position. The optimum target position for obtaining the maximum proton energy agreed with that for obtaining the maximum XPD signal.
Dependences of observed maximum proton energy on laser intensity and laser fluence . The deviation of scaling was smaller than that of scaling. , standard deviation.
Dependences of observed maximum proton energy on target material and thickness. The plots with only error bars denote laser pulses with a laser intensity of and a pulse duration of , and closed circles denote laser pulses with a laser intensity of and a pulse duration of . The maximum proton energy increased as the product decreased. The dashed and dotted curves are visual guides calculated using Eq. (1).
Etched tracks on a CR39 plate that was covered with a filter set consisting of seven copper films with different thicknesses. The obtained maximum energy of protons was between 3.14 and since an additional CR39 plate, which was covered with aluminum filters with a thickness of , detected no ions. The total number of protons with the maximum energy detected on a CR39 plate with a solid angle of was estimated to be .
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