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The Kretschmann configuration for detection of surface plasmons in conducting thin films. The angle must be greater than the critical angle so that the light is totally internally reflected. The incident light is polarized so that the component can drive an oscillation of conduction electrons (plasmon) while the -polarized component is an evanescent wave that penetrates into the sampled region.
(Color) Dispersion curve for indium tin oxide calculated based on the optical constants and . Point A represents the theoretical coupling regions of an ITO glass slide at an incident angle of 90° with coupling predicted to occur below .
(Color) Three-dimensional reflectivity map of (I) indium tin oxide and (II) gold as a function of incident angles of 40°–70° and 41°–43° and wave numbers ranging from to and to for I and II, respectively. The grayscale represents the reflectivity changes with the darkest region representing the least reflectivity or most absorbance by the substrate. The wave number and angular dependence of reflected light are reported as the difference reflectance, which results from the subtraction of the reflectance of -polarized light from -polarized light. The sample geometry consists of the incident infrared light entering through a prism in the so-called Kretchmann geometry in a stage designed by GWC attached to a thermoelectron FTIR spectrometer.
ITO bulk (volume) plasmons as determined by VEELS with an energy value given on the axis and intensity on the axis in terms of both energy (eV) and wave number . The volume plasmon energy values of ITO, silicon, and silicon dioxide are shown with an energy resolution of .
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