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High resolution quantitative two-dimensional dopant mapping using energy-filtered secondary electron imaging
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10.1063/1.2335980
/content/aip/journal/jap/100/5/10.1063/1.2335980
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/5/10.1063/1.2335980

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) A schematic diagram of the internal geometrical design of the pole pieces, the extractor tube, and the deflector electrodes (through-the-lens detector) in the FEI XL30s FEG-SEM. The concept of secondary electron energy filtering is demonstrated using SE ray traces. The dashed lines represent the SE trajectories of a low- and high-energy SE for a large deflector voltage, and the dotted lines represent the same SE trajectories for a small deflector voltage. Note that the chamber is the lower pole piece. The maximum magnetic field is located just below the upper pole piece. (b) Schematic representation of the secondary electron energy distribution from the -doped and -doped sides of a junction. The deflector voltage acts as a low-pass filter. (c) Schematic representation of the integral of the secondary electron energy distribution in (b), otherwise known as the S curve.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SE image of a Si test structure (sample I) consisting of six -doped layers (B doped) on a -doped (Sb-doped) substrate. The -doped layers labeled A, B, C, D, and E are doped to , , , , and , respectively. The dopant concentration for layer F varies across the layer and hence is not used in our experiments. Layer G is a -doped substrate with a doping concentration of .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) SE image of a Si test structure (sample II) consisting of six -doped layers (B doped) on a -doped (Sb-doped) substrate. The -doped layers labeled A, B, C, D, E, and F are doped to , , , , , and , respectively. Layer G is a -doped substrate with a doping concentration of . (b) SE intensity profiles of the SE image in (a).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) SE image of two Cu wires with different specimen bias values of (left wire) and (right wire) taken at a 128 times averaged TV scan rate, a of , and a of . The right phase diagram shows that a constant value is maintained throughout the entire image. (b) The SE image of the structure in (a). The right phase diagram shows the ac voltages on the electrodes such that for the top half of the image and for the bottom half .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

SE intensity vs showing the experimental S curves obtained through energy filtering from the test structure in Fig. 2 (sample I) at a WD of and a of . The inset shows the experimental SE distributions obtained by differentiating the total SE yield with respect to . Note that the derivative at each point is calculated using second-order smoothing.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

A plot of dopant concentration vs the for a of and a working distance of . The dash-dotted lines delineate the prediction error band. Note that the vertical error bars represent the dopant concentration error in the SIMS measurements. The inset shows the SE intensity vs from Fig. 5 for . An example of the required to equalize the SE intensity of a given doped layer to that of the highest doped layer is also shown.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

SE intensity vs showing the experimental S curves obtained through energy filtering from the test structure in Fig. 2 (Sample I) at a WD of and a of . The inset shows the experimental SE distributions obtained by differentiating the total SE yield with respect to . Note that the derivative at each point is calculated using second-order smoothing.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

A plot of dopant concentration vs the for a of and a working distance of . The dash-dotted lines delineate the prediction error band. Note that the vertical error bars represent the dopant concentration error in the SIMS measurements. The inset shows the SE intensity vs from Fig. 6 for . An example of the required to equalize the SE intensity of a given doped layer to that of the highest doped layer is also shown.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

SE intensity vs SE energy and for -doped layer (layer D) and the -doped substrate of the Si test structure (sample II) in Fig. 3(a) showing S curves obtained from SE energy filtering performed on these layers.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

A plot of the derivative of the SE intensity with respect to the deflector voltage (Fig. 9) vs the SE energy and for a working distance of and a tube bias of for -doped layer (layer D) and the -doped substrate of the Si test structure (sample II) in Fig. 3(a) showing the experimental SE distributions obtained from SE energy filtering performed on these layers. Note that the derivative at each point is calculated using second-order smoothing.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Values of the intended growth widths (FWHM) for the -doped layers of the Si test structure (sample II) in Fig. 3(a) as well as the values of the widths as measured by SIMS and SEM.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/100/5/10.1063/1.2335980
2006-09-01
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High resolution quantitative two-dimensional dopant mapping using energy-filtered secondary electron imaging
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/5/10.1063/1.2335980
10.1063/1.2335980
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