XRD spectra for grown with low power (a) and high power (b) magnetron sputter-deposition on .
Cross-sectional TEM image of an interface (a) showing no reaction at the interface, and a interface (b) showing significant reaction as indicated by the arrows.
Rutherford backscattering spectra around the Ti peak before and after LSCO deposition and annealing for an (a) and a (b) heterostructure.
Evolution of , , , and MSRI peaks intensities as a function of film growth on a Si substrate.
Variation of MSRI signals for different species, and intensity ratio as a function of oxidation temperature for an barrier layer on .
XPS spectra of surface around the metallic Ti and peaks (a); and the peak (b) as a function of oxidation temperature for an barrier layer on .
XPS spectra of a heterostructure about the Ti peaks after room temperature LSCO deposition (a) and after annealing the heterostructure (b).
(a) Four-probe, current-voltage (I–V) data from an barrier/electrode layer on Si; (b) good ferroelectric loops of LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitors integrated with Si through an layer; (c) fatigue characteristics of test capacitors annealed at as a function of polarization switching cycles; also shown is the data for PZT capacitors produced using the conventional sol-gel PZT method with annealing of the PZT layer at or .
Field-dependent dielectric properties of a BST capacitor with a BST layer sandwiched between two BST interfacial layers. This heterostructure capacitor exhibited low loss (b), almost identical to that of the interfacial BST layer itself at zero bias and room temperature, yet maintained an intermediate zero-bias permittivity of 270, and the high tunability (76%) (a) of the primary BST layer, corresponding to a K value of 150.
MSRI spectra obtained from a BST film surface immediately after exposure to air [(a)-(1)], after annealing in vacuum of [(a)-(2)] and after annealing in of at [(a)-(3)]; (b) and (c) show the peak count evolution for carbon and hydrogen, respectively, during heating of BST films in vacuum and in oxygen ambient of and .
Current density vs electric field for heterostructures with Pt top electrodes deposited either at in vacuum (marked as “normal”) or deposited under conditions yielding a clean top interface (marked as “optimized”), for (a) as-deposited electrodes and (b) after annealing in air for at .
(Color) In situ XPS depth profile analysis of a heterostructure layer after deposition of a BST layer at about in oxygen background pressure of about in the TOF-ISRAS systems described in Sec. I. This analysis shows the excellent oxygen diffusion barrier characteristics of the layer that prevents the underlying Cu electrode layer from getting oxidized, during growth of an oxide layer on top.
High-resolution cross-section TEM micrograph of a heterostructure that exhibited chemical properties as shown in Fig. 12 and electrical characteristics described below.
(Color online) In situ XPS analysis of thin layer on Si before and after oxidation with atomic oxygen. The (a) and (b) spectra show complete transitions to and for both oxidation processes. The spectra (c) and the intensity ratio vs oxidation temperature (d) reveal inhibition of interfacial layer formation.
NEXAFS analysis of TAO thin layers produced with atomic oxygen oxidation at RT and at for . The -edge (a) and -edge (b) spectra show identical O and Ti local binding environments for both oxidation conditions, consistent XPS analysis.
(Color online) HRTEM and EELS analyses of room-temperature oxidized TAO layer grown on . (a) HRTEM image, (b) elemental maps, and (c) integrated line scans for Al, Si, O, and Ti, respectively.
characteristics of the TAO-based MOS capacitors on and Si with Pt top electrodes, measured at different frequencies.
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