Schematic view of the sample holder and the electrical circuit used for domain inversion of the crystal.
Experimental setup for visualizations of the domain inversion in crystal. T—telescope, BS—beam splitter, M—Mirror, and CCD—charge coupling device.
The phase variation of the transmitted wave front in terms of the electric field and the polarization of the crystal sample.
The mean phase difference in terms of the applied external voltage and its fitting line.
Phase map showing the variation of the domain wall under different external voltages, for the top one and for the bottom one.
The quantitative curve of the phase difference along the marked white line in Fig. 5 at every .
The mean phase difference close to the antiparallel domain walls in terms of the applied external voltage, its polynomial fitting line, and linear fitting line.
3D Phase map showing the optical path difference between domains due to the internal field.
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