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Resonant photonic band gap structures realized from molecular-beam-epitaxially grown Bragg-spaced quantum wells
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10.1063/1.2234814
/content/aip/journal/jap/100/6/10.1063/1.2234814
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/6/10.1063/1.2234814

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Measured absorption coefficient of an quantum well sample (IA1501) compared to a simulation using the 2D Elliot formula with parameters and .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A comparison of indices corresponding to the heavy-hole excitons calculated in two ways: exactly from the 2D Elliot formula (solid) and using a Kramers-Kronig transformation of the calculated absorption coefficient (dashed).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Simulated linear response from a Bragg-spaced quantum well structure ( , ) as a function of resonant exciton dipole moment: (dash), 3.8 (solid), and . The inset shows that the (simulated) Bragg-spaced quantum well resonant photonic bandwidth scales linearly with the dipole moment of the resonant exciton ( , ).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Simulated linear response for a Bragg-spaced quantum well structure ( , ) as a function of resonant exciton dephasing rate: (solid), 0.5 (dot), and 2.5 (dashed) meV.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Simulated linear response of a Bragg-spaced quantum well structure ( , ) as a function of number of periods: (dot), 300 (dash), 1000 (solid).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Simulated reflection (solid), transmission (dash), and absorption (dot) of an Bragg-spaced quantum well structure using susceptibility calculated in two ways, as in Fig. 1 : 2D Elliot formula ( , ) (top) and extracted from a single quantum well measurement using Kramers-Kronig (bottom).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Simulated linear response of a Bragg-spaced quantum well structure ( , ) with each period two monolayers short of the Bragg condition for (dot), 300 (dash), 1000 (solid). The small deviation from Bragg spacing leads to opening of the intermediate band.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Simulated linear response of a Bragg-spaced quantum well structure ( , , ) for varying degrees of drift in the periodicity. Note that the periodicity is not Bragg but chosen so that the intermediate band is dark.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Simulated linear response of a Bragg-spaced quantum well structure ( , , ) with two realizations (solid, dash) of pseudorandom disorder. For both cases, the average period is Bragg, and the distribution of periods is square and within of the Bragg condition. Random disorder leads to little collapse of the resonant photonic band gap compared to the ideal structure (dot) but allows light to couple to the intermediate band states.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Low temperature photoluminescence and absorption measurements of two samples grown in the same manner with low substrate temperature during quantum well growth but with replacement of the 7N5 As ingot after the growth of IA1291 and before the growth of IA1379.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

SIMS measurement of the In and S concentrations in two samples, one with an impurity peak in photoluminescence and absorption (IA1379) and one without (IA1249). IA1249, grown at a hotter substrate temperature than IA1379 , shows a thicker In segregation layer ( width of ) than IA1379 ( width of ).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Dependence of the sulfur impurity peak on substrate temperature during quantum well growth. As the substrate temperature is increased, sulfur incorporation is suppressed. If the substrate becomes too hot, the In desorbs, as shown in the bottom plot. Measurements were performed at low temperature .

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Dependence of the low temperature heavy-hole exciton absorption coefficient on growth rate. Note that the As BEP was held constant and not the V/III ratio, which decreased from 13 to 9 to 7, and likely explains the decrease in sulfur contamination.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Dependence of the low temperature absorption coefficient on the In concentration: (IA1475), 0.033 (IA1473), and 0.06 (IA1476). In addition to the linewidth increasing with In concentration (0.43, 0.78, ), the oscillator strength increases in the ratio 1.0:1.59:1.89.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Low temperature measurement of the absorption coefficient of our optimized quantum well (IA1483), with linewidth of . Note that the background absorption is due to the absorption tail in the GaAs substrate.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Schematic of the location of the relevant growth cells with respect to the substrate holder. The view is from the front of the MBE growth chamber where the cells are located and looking to the back of the growth chamber where the substrate manipulator is. The 3 and 8 by Ga are just to distinguish the cells.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Low temperature measured reflection (solid), transmission (dashed), and absorption (dot) of Bragg-spaced quantum well structure IA1436, grown with the more stable Ga3 cell. Growth rate was not monitored or corrected.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Low temperature measured reflection (solid), transmission (dashed), and absorption (dot) of Bragg-spaced quantum well structure IA1498, grown with the less stable Ga8 cell. Growth rate was not monitored or corrected. Drift in growth rate led to collapse of the resonant photonic band gap.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

(a) Low temperature measured reflection (solid), transmission (dashed), and absorption (dot) of Bragg-spaced quantum well structure IA1506. Growth rate was monitored and corrected during growth. (b) Comparison to a simulation of an identical ideal (i.e., no disorder in periodicity) Bragg-spaced quantum well structure.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

(a) Low temperature measured reflection (solid), transmission (dashed), and absorption (dot) of Bragg-spaced quantum well structure IA1502, grown with the Ga3 cell. Growth rate was monitored and corrected during growth. (b) Comparison to a simulation of an identical ideal (i.e., no disorder in periodicity) Bragg-spaced quantum well structure.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Summary of quantum well structures, confirmed with x-ray measurements unless an asterisk appears by the sample number, MBE growth parameters, and quantum well characterizations at low temperature.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Growth summary of Bragg-spaced quantum wells.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/100/6/10.1063/1.2234814
2006-09-21
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Resonant photonic band gap structures realized from molecular-beam-epitaxially grown InGaAs∕GaAs Bragg-spaced quantum wells
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/6/10.1063/1.2234814
10.1063/1.2234814
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