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Water activity and mobility in solutions of glycerol and small molecular weight sugars: Implication for cryo- and lyopreservation
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10.1063/1.2336304
/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2336304
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2336304

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A comparison between the model predictions and the available experimental data for the viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of pure water at various temperatures. The resulting for the fit to the viscosity data is 1 while it is 0.996 for the fit to self-diffusion coefficients.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) A comparison between the model predictions (lines) and the available experimental data (symbols) for the water activity at room temperature in the aqueous solutions of glycerol (a), fructose (b), sucrose (c), and trehalose (d). Also shown is the predicted water activity at various temperatures other than the room temperature for the four aqueous solutions as indicated in the legend in each subfigure. The values of the for all the predictions are greater than 0.997, except for trehalose whose value is 0.96.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) A comparison between the model predictions (lines) and the available experimental data (symbols) for the viscosity of the aqueous solutions of glycerol (a), fructose (b), sucrose (c), and trehalose (d), at various temperatures and concentrations. The values of the for all the predictions, calculated using the common log of both the model predictions and experimental data, are greater than 0.997.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) A comparison between the model predictions (lines) and the available experimental data (symbols) for the water self-diffusion coefficients in aqueous solutions of glycerol (a), fructose (b), sucrose (c), and trehalose (d), at various temperatures and concentrations. The for the predictions, calculated using the common log of both the model predictions and experimental data, are 0.98, 0.93, 0.99, and 0.99 for glycerol, fructose, sucrose, and trehalose, respectively.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) The predicted viscosity of aqueous solutions of glycerol (a), fructose (b), sucrose (c), and trehalose (d) in the full concentration range (i.e., ) at various temperatures of interest in cryo-/lyopreservation applications, viz., 37, 20, 0, , and together with the glass transition temperature of each solution with water. The asterisk on each curve in the figure indicates the predicted onset point of glass transition when drying a more dilute solution at the given temperature.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) A comparison between the available experimental data and model predictions calculated using the three different models given by Eqs. (13) (line 4), (14) (line 3), and (16) (line 1). Also plotted are the average of the predictions of the models given by Eqs. (14) and (16) (line 2) and the predicted water self-diffusion coefficients by Eq. (9).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) The predicted water mutual diffusion (dash lines) and self-diffusion (solid lines) coefficients for the aqueous solutions of glycerol (a), fructose (b), sucrose (c), and trehalose (d) over the full concentration range (i.e., ) at various temperatures of interest in cryo-/lyopreservation applications, viz., 37, 20, 0, , , and . The cross and plus symbols indicate the predicted onset points of glass transition when drying a more dilute solution at the given temperature.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) The predicted maximum storage temperature required for the storage of a biological sample without degradation for (dashed line) and (solid line) using fructose, sucrose, or trehalose as the cryo-/lyoprotectant. The assumed criterion for no degradation is that the mean diffusion length of a water molecule in the sample is less than in the given time span.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Parameters in the free volume models for pure water.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Parameters in the free volume models for aqueous solutions of glycerol, fructose, sucrose, and trehalose.

Generic image for table
Table III.

The ratio of the self-diffusion coefficients of glycerol, fructose, sucrose, and trehalose to that of water in an infinitely dilute solution at various temperatures.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

The glass transition temperature ( in °C) and the maximum storage temperature ( in °C and rounded to one decimal point) required for the preservation of a biological sample for or in an amorphous glass matrix of aqueous solutions of fructose, sucrose, and trehalose. The criterion for determining the maximum storage temperature is that the mean diffusion length calculated by Eq. (21) is less than , about the size of an atom.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2336304
2006-10-11
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Water activity and mobility in solutions of glycerol and small molecular weight sugars: Implication for cryo- and lyopreservation
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2336304
10.1063/1.2336304
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