Schematic of two-step anodization of aluminum film.
Typical SEM images of a porous alumina mask (anodized in oxalic acid at ) with magnifications of (a) 35 000 and (b) 90 000; structural characterization of the porous mask shown in (b). (c) Diameter distribution (average of and standard deviation of ). (d) Periodicity distribution (average of and standard deviation of ). (e) Number of nearest-neighbor pores (average of 5.97, standard deviation of 0.18). (f) Angle between the directions to nearest neighbor pores (average of 59.9°, standard deviation of 10.6°). (g) Pore shape is analyzed by fitting the pores as ellipses. The average length ratio (minor axis/major axis) of the ellipses is 0.85, with standard deviation of 0.11. (h) FFT image of porous structure. The pore periodicity calculated from the FFT spot distance agrees well with the result shown in (d). Both the structural characterization and FFT analyses are consistent with a hexagonal ordering of nanopores.
Typical SEM image of an alumina mask anodized at in sulfuric acid with pore density exceeding per square inch.
(a) Typical SEM image of Fe dot array (fabricated using alumina mask anodized at ) with average diameter and periodicity of 67 and , respectively; (b) typical SEM image of Fe dot array (fabricated using alumina mask anodized at ) with average diameter and periodicity of 32 and , respectively.
Schematic of fabrication process of exchange-biased bilayer nanodot array using argon-ion milling at an angle of 45°.
AFM image of a typical Fe dot array (fabricated using alumina mask anodized at ). The standard deviation of the dot height is about .
(a) Geometry of GISANS measurement. (b) Scattering intensity as the function of momentum transfer vector for an array of Fe dots ( height, average diameter) (▴) and a continuous Fe film of the same thickness (◻). The statistical errors are given by the square root of the scattering intensity. Due to their small sizes, most of the error bars are covered by symbols. (c) Difference between the scattering intensity of dots and that of the film.
Parameters of aluminum film anodization at .
Summary of structural characterization of typical nanopore arrays in anodized alumina.
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