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Microwave diagnostics of laser-induced avalanche ionization in air
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Sketch of microwave scattering from laser spark

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Relative electron number densities at avalanche breakdown, computed with Eqs. (4) and (5) The arrows show the time delays when the breakdown criterion (the dotted horizontal line) is realized.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Experimental setup of microwave scattering from laser spark.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Sample measurement signal of microwave scattering from a laser spark in room air. The inset window shows zoomed in view of the precursor pulse.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Precursor part of microwave scattering signal at various locations around the laser breakdown region relative to the microwave induced polarization direction. The receiver angles are 0° [dashed dot dot (green) line], 45° [dashed (red) line], 90° [solid (black) line], and 135° [dotted (blue) line]. Each curve represents an average of 64 pulses. For all curves, .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Short time (left) and long time (right) microwave scatterings at and at and 0°. Note that the precursor scattering is independent of , indicating scattering in the Rayleigh range, whereas the long time scattering is in the Mie regime.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Dependence of peak microwave scattering signal on distance of the receiver. The (black) curve is a fit to the maximum scattering intensity at different distances. For comparison, (green) curve and (blue) curve are also shown in the figure.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) A zoomed precursor part of normalized microwave scattering signals at different laser pulse intensities. The arrows show the time moments when the accepted breakdown criterion (the horizontal line as in Fig. 2) is realized.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Microwave diagnostics of laser-induced avalanche ionization in air