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Simulating thermal explosion of octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment
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10.1063/1.2357418
/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2357418
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2357418

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (a) Photograph of the STEX vessel. (b) Schematic of the ALE3D model domain.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) Preignition characterized by slow thermochemical decomposition of HE. (b) Postignition illustrated with rapid burn propagation due to expanding hot product gases.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Experimental and calculated ODTX times to thermal explosion vs inverse temperature for LX-04.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Experimental and calculated ODTX times to thermal explosion vs inverse temperature for LX-10.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Curve fits of the measured rate of deflagration for both HEs based on experiments in Ref. 17.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

One-dimensional (spherical symmetry) mesh used in the ODTX simulations.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Meshes used in the STEX simulation. The 1D mesh is generated from a slice along the center radial line of the 2D mesh on the right. The steel wall thickness is for LX-04 and is for LX-10 (not shown). In both, there exists a 7% gap (by volume) in LX-04 system while a 8.66% gap is present in the LX-10 system.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

History of the time-step size during the final hours of thermal explosion. Shown from prior to ignition at time .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Simulated mechanical response of confined LX-04 in a 1D STEX model. The wall hoop strain is at location No. 2 in Fig. 7(a). The strain calculation agrees with the empty vessel result until about as chemical decomposition of HE becomes pronounced in the confined system.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Simulated mechanical response of confined LX-10 in a 1D STEX model. The wall hoop strain is at location No. 2 in Fig. 7(a). The strain calculation agrees with the empty vessel result until about as chemical decomposition of HE becomes pronounced in the confined system.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Calculated thermal response of confined LX-04 in a 2D STEX experiment. The control and internal thermocouples are located at position Nos. 1 and 6 in Fig. 1(b), respectively. The predicted ignition temperature is approximately 1° lower than the experimental result. Both and meshes are used.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Calculated thermal response of confined LX-10 in a 2D STEX experiment. The control and internal thermocouples are located at position Nos. 1 and 6 in Fig. 1(b), respectively. The predicted ignition temperature is less than a degree off from the measurement. Both and meshes are used.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Experimental and calculated hoop strain records from the slow heating to the thermal runaway phase for LX-04.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Experimental and calculated hoop strain records from the slow heating to the thermal runaway phase for LX-10.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Chemical kinetics parameters for decomposition of LX-04 and LX-10.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Constitutive parameters of LX-04 and LX-10 (HMX and Viton).

Generic image for table
Table III.

Constitutive parameters of 4130 steel.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Constitutive parameters of AerMet 100 steel and air.

Generic image for table
Table V.

Constants in the equations of shear modulus and yield stress.

Generic image for table
Table VI.

Comparison of explosion temperatures.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2357418
2006-10-12
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Simulating thermal explosion of octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/7/10.1063/1.2357418
10.1063/1.2357418
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