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Void formation and surface energies in
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Plan-view TEM images of four samples deposited at IEC. The scale marks on all images are . (a) Bilayer process at , (b) single layer process at , (c) bilayer process at , and (d) single layer process at .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Low and (b) high resolution images of intergranular voids formed in IEC bilayer CIGS polycrystals grown at . The voids exhibit strongly faceted shapes, heavily dominated by {112}-type planes.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) A number of intragranular voids in an evaporated GSE polycrystal located at the termination of twin boundaries (dark horizontal bands). A grain boundary is marked GB. (b) A lattice image of the void in the top center region of (a) showing the enlarged void and the nanovoids at the dislocation cores. The twin axis, twin planes bounding the twinned region, and the {112} planes separated by 38° as a result of the twin are marked.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

An atomic-scale model of the CIGS lattice overlain on the image in Fig. 3(b). The individual facets of this model are {112} type, although some roughness is evident on some facet faces. This could be due to a higher index plane but is more likely just roughness especially on the short facet faces, some of which may be {112} planes inclined with respect to the normal to the image plane. The model is shown enlarged at the right.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

A Wulff plot constructed based on the intragranular void images observed in the TEM images. The construction is projected onto one plane as the six {112} planes do not lie normal to a single {110} plane. The relative lengths of the metal- and Se-terminated planes suggest that one type (probably the Se plane) has an higher energy. Note how half of this figure is comparable to either half of the large void on either side of the twin in Figs. 3(b) and 4.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Performances of solar cells produced from the materials studied here (Ref. 7).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Void formation and surface energies in Cu(InGa)Se2