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Domain wall induced modes of high-frequency response in ferromagnetic elements
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10.1063/1.2365382
/content/aip/journal/jap/100/9/10.1063/1.2365382
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/9/10.1063/1.2365382

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Flux transfer mechanisms in patterned soft magnetic structured materials. (a) Closed flux configuration at . (b) Flux transfer by rotation and wall displacement (adapted from Ref. 25). (c) Magnetization distribution according to the models of Mallary and Smith (Ref. 15) and (d) Ohashi (Ref. 18). The regions with flux propagation by pure magnetization rotation are highlighted. The regions with curled magnetization (CZ) are indicated in (c) and (d) (see text for details).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) Geometry of the experiment (see text for details), where the ferromagnetic film or elements are in contact with the coplanar waveguide, delivering the field pulse . Pulse shapes generated by the two different pulse generators used in (b) PIMM and (c) dynamic Kerr microscopy.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Typical zero-field magnetic domain structures after applying a field along (a) the EA and (b) HA. The magneto-optical sensitivity direction is aligned vertically . The directions of magnetization and previously aligned field are indicated.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) Magnetization loops along easy (EA) and hard axis (HA) of magnetization. (b) Inductive signal . The decay time and the precessional frequency is indicated. (c) Time-domain data of the magnetic step response for different magnetic history. The direction of relative to the magnetization and the amplitude are shown. (d) Relative permeability amplitude spectra derived from the time-domain data in (b). (The number of displayed data points is reduced for better clarity.)

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Bias field dependence of precessional frequency and (b) normalized amplitude of fast magnetization response derived from the induced voltage . Comparison data for the HA and EA case, as indicated, are shown.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) Magnetic domain structure after the application of a field parallel to the HA and (b) change of domain structure with the application of a field along the HA. Domain structure (c) and change (d) of magnetization as in (a) and (b) for the EA case. The magneto-optical sensitivity direction is aligned horizontally , parallel to the applied field direction. (e), (f) Virgin magnetization curves of a single element starting from the HA and EA state, respectively. The field values of (b) and (d) are indicated in (e) and (f), respectively. Part of the inductively obtained high field magnetization loop of the complete array is shown for comparison in (e) and (f).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a) Magnetization loops of an array of rectangular elements along the magnetic easy (EA) and hard axis (HA). (b) Inductive signal , (c) magnetic response, and (d) permeability spectra derived from the inductive signal in (b).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) (a) Initial domain structure before pulse excitation in a element. The domains were set by degaussing the elements in an EA field with decreasing amplitude. Only a part of the element is imaged. (b)–(g) Lateral and temporal evolution of the change of magnetization along and perpendicular to the pulse field direction. The directions of the magnetization are indicated qualitatively. [The magnetic field evolution is shown in Fig. 2(b).]

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) (a) Initial magnetization distribution at . (b) Sketched magnetization response corresponding to Fig. 8(c). The regions with reduced rotational permeability (CZ) are indicated.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) (a) Magnetic domain structure after the application of a field parallel to the (left) EA and (right) HA direction. Only half of the element is shown for the EA and HA case, respectively. The resulting domain structures with the application of a bias field are displayed in (b)–(f).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (a) Change of and (b) normalized amplitude with . Comparison data for the HA and EA case, together with the full film dependency, are shown.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) (a) Magnetic domain structure in the top layer of a laminated element after the application of a quasistatic field parallel to the HA. (b) Change of domains with field along the HA direction. The direction of magnetization in the top and bottom layers are indicated by full and dashed arrows, respectively.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) (a) Magnetization loops of an array of laminated elements along the magnetic easy (EA) and hard axis (HA). (b) Inductive signal , (c) magnetic response, and (d) permeability spectra derived from the inductive signal in (b).

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Example domain structure during pulse excitation. The same pulse as in Fig. 8 was used. [The magnetic field evolution is shown in Fig. 2(b).]

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) Magnetization distribution (a) without and (b) with applied magnetic field of a laminated structure corresponding to Fig. 14. (c) Cross-sectional view of the magnetization distribution in the magnetic bilayer structure.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Color online) (a) Magnetic domain structure after the application of a field parallel to EA direction. The change of domain structure with the application of a bias field is displayed in (b)–(f). The directions of magnetization and the field strength are indicated.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

(Color online) (a) Change of and (b) normalized amplitude with . Comparison data for the HA and EA case, together with the EA full film dependency, are shown.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Dynamic magnetic properties at for the full film (f.f.), single layer patterns (s.l.) for the EA and HA case, and magnetic bilayer (b.l.) samples (see text for details).

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/content/aip/journal/jap/100/9/10.1063/1.2365382
2006-11-14
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Domain wall induced modes of high-frequency response in ferromagnetic elements
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/100/9/10.1063/1.2365382
10.1063/1.2365382
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