Schematic diagram of simultaneous work of VTE treatment and indiffusion of Ti strip into a -cut or an -cut . Also indicated is an Cartesian frame fixed on the waveguide surface.
(a) Diffusivity as a function of Li composition at (full squares) and (open squares) for three major crystal orientations. The dotted and solid lines result from the fitting to the corresponding scattered data. [(b) and (c)] Activation energy and diffusion constant as a function of Li composition.
Measured concentration (full squares) vs depth for Li diffusion into a -cut (a) and an -cut (b) -thick plate. The VTE treatment was carried out at over . The solid lines denote the numerical results. [(c) and (d)] Li diffusivity vs Li composition obtained from the experimental data shown in (a) and (b) by using the method reported by Jundt et al. (Ref. 13). The dotted curve in (c) is the result reported by Jundt et al. (Ref. 13).
SIMS profiles (open circles) of Ti concentration along the width direction of NS strip waveguides fabricated by using VTE treatment and codiffusion of (a) 6- and (b) -wide, -thick Ti strips at over . The solid lines are the fitting results on the experimental data by using a sum of two error functions.
(a) Depth profiles of , , , and SIMS signals from the same NS strip waveguide (initial Ti-strip width of ) as that in Fig. 4. The depth indicated is evaluated from the Ti profile. (b) Results of fitting the measured Ti profile shown in (a) to a standard Gaussian (dash) and a complementary error (dot) trial function. For comparison, the measured Ti profile is also shown.
Calculated results (full squares) of depth profile of relative Ti concentration under the assumption of the switching times (a) , (b) , and (c) . A same VTE duration of is assumed for each case of . The solid lines are the fitting results using a complementary error function.
Numerical results of ratio depth profile in a -cut (a) and an X-cut (b) plate ( thick) that is assumed being VTE treated at the same temperature of but different VTE durations.
Numerical results (full squares) of relative Ti-concentration profile along the depth (left part) and width (right part) directions of a -cut -thick crystal that is assumed being VTE treated at the same temperature of but different VTE durations up to . Before VTE treatment, a -thick, -wide Ti strip was photolithographically defined on the surface of the crystal. The solid lines represent the fittings to the numerical results by assuming a complementary error or Gaussian trial function for depth profiles and a sum of two error functions for the width profiles. The fitting parameter is indicated for each plot.
Numerical results (full squares) of relative Ti concentration profile along the depth (left part) and width (right part) directions of an -cut, -thick crystal that is assumed being VTE treated at the same temperature of but different VTE durations up to . The initial Ti-strip geometry and drawing style are the same as those described in Fig. 8. The Ti strip is oriented along the crystallographic axis .
Comparisons of measured (solid lines) and numerical (squares) results of (a)–(d): Ti- and (e)–(h) Li-concentration profiles along the depth direction of a -cut -thick crystal that was VTE treated at the same temperature of but different durations of 2, 3, 95, and . Before VTE treatment, a -thick, -wide Ti strip was photolithographically defined on the surface of the crystal.
VTE duration dependence of diffusion depth (line + full square or circle) and half-width (line + open square or circle) at maximum of the relative Ti concentration shown in Figs. 8 and 9. The solid-line curve corresponds to a plot of . The dotted curve represents the result of fitting to the Ti-concentration depth data by using a power function .
VTE duration dependence of mean ratio within the -thick layer just below the surface of a -cut (open squares) or an -cut (open circles) crystal. The data are determined from the calculated ratio profiles shown in Fig. 7.
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