(Color online) AFM images observed at various surface-coverage positions on a 6-nm GaAs CEO layer annealed for 10 min at a substrate temperature of 591 °C. The scan area is . The surface coverage at each position is given by the fractional deviation from the integer-ML coverage. and indicate a 2-ML-high boat-shaped island and a 1-ML-deep fish-shaped pit, respectively.
(Color online) AFM images observed at various surface-coverage positions on 6-nm GaAs CEO layers annealed for 10 min at various substrate temperatures . The scan area is . Distinct mono- or multi-layer-high steps marked by white crosses (e.g., in the image of -ML coverage at 591 °C) are caused by the imperfect cleavage in the in situ cleaving process, while faint periodic straight lines and faint curved or tilted lines without white crosses (e.g., in the images of 0 ML at 615, 627, or 649 °C) are artifacts in the AFM measurements and should be ignored (Ref. 21).
(Color online) AFM image of the 649 °C-annealed GaAs(110) cleaved edge without CEO growth. The scan area is .
Size distribution of the 2-ML-deep arrowhead-shaped pits seen on the annealed surfaces of the 6-nm-thick GaAs CEO layers (circles) and the cleaved edge (triangle) annealed at various substrate temperatures.
(Color online) (a) Magnified AFM images of the 2-ML-deep arrowhead-shaped pits in the surface of an annealed GaAs CEO layer. Dotted white lines indicate the apex angle of the pits. (b) An atomic arrangement model of the pit. Ga and As atoms are represented by open and filled circles, respectively.
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