(Color online) FEL-induced modification of monocrystalline silicon surfaces imaged by Nomarski microscopy.
Raman spectra measured at different places on a FEL-irradiated sample of monocrystalline Si (dotted line, unirradiated surface; solid line, crater rim; and dashed line, crater center).
AFM measurements of the silicon (a) and quartz (b) samples. Irradiation conditions were similar (fluence ).
Profiles of the craters shown in Fig. 3 for silicon (a) and quartz (b).
Ablation rates in quartz irradiated by FEL radiation as a function of laser fluence. Full circles, 67 shots accumulated; open circles, 22 shots accumulated; and triangles, the XUV-ABLATOR simulation.
The energy spectra of ions taken with the TOF spectrometer for the silicon (a) and quartz (b) samples. Signals have been normalized. The energy scale has been divided by the ions’ charge state. Irradiation conditions were similar in both cases (fluence ).
Surface modification thresholds of various materials exposed to TTF1-FEL pulses.
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