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Analysis of vertical alignment and bending of crystalline nanowires using normal and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction intensities
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SEM images of nanowire samples: (a) aligned nanowires of sample A and (b) its AFM image showing oriented nanowires, (c) randomly oriented nanowires from sample B and (d) its side view showing tilted and bent nanowires.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

XRD patterns on nanowire samples: (a) sample A, (b) sample B, and (c) powder sample.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

GIXRD patterns at 1.5° grazing incidence from (a) sample A and (b) sample B.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Modeled view of nanowire in GIXRD geometry showing incident x rays at grazing angle of 1.5°, and diffraction condition met by (a) (300) planes when the nanowire is nearly vertical and (b) (110) planes when the nanowire is bent by .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Normalized XRD peak intensities from various planes of powder sample (horizontal line at the top) and from the nanowire sample (dotted and bold lines). In the nanowire plot, planes having higher value have lower peak intensity in XRD pattern (solid line).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Geometries used for calculation of angles and . (a) Vertically grown nanowire along ⟨110⟩ and directions of its crystallographic axes . Orthogonal axes are chosen for calculation of angle . (b) Diffraction condition met by plane as a result of bending of the nanowire by angle . Consequent change in the direction of the axis is indicated by angle .


Generic image for table
Table I.

Values of alignment index calculated from XRD patterns using Eq. (8) and from GIXRD patterns at different x-ray incidence angles using Eq. (13).

Generic image for table
Table II.

Values of angle calculated using Eq. (9) and angles using Eqs. (17), and for planes in a nanowire using Eq. (18). Grazing incidence angle in GIXRD.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Analysis of vertical alignment and bending of crystalline α-Fe2O3 nanowires using normal and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction intensities