SEM images of nanowire samples: (a) aligned nanowires of sample A and (b) its AFM image showing oriented nanowires, (c) randomly oriented nanowires from sample B and (d) its side view showing tilted and bent nanowires.
XRD patterns on nanowire samples: (a) sample A, (b) sample B, and (c) powder sample.
GIXRD patterns at 1.5° grazing incidence from (a) sample A and (b) sample B.
Modeled view of nanowire in GIXRD geometry showing incident x rays at grazing angle of 1.5°, and diffraction condition met by (a) (300) planes when the nanowire is nearly vertical and (b) (110) planes when the nanowire is bent by .
Normalized XRD peak intensities from various planes of powder sample (horizontal line at the top) and from the nanowire sample (dotted and bold lines). In the nanowire plot, planes having higher value have lower peak intensity in XRD pattern (solid line).
Geometries used for calculation of angles and . (a) Vertically grown nanowire along ⟨110⟩ and directions of its crystallographic axes . Orthogonal axes are chosen for calculation of angle . (b) Diffraction condition met by plane as a result of bending of the nanowire by angle . Consequent change in the direction of the axis is indicated by angle .
Values of alignment index calculated from XRD patterns using Eq. (8) and from GIXRD patterns at different x-ray incidence angles using Eq. (13).
Values of angle calculated using Eq. (9) and angles using Eqs. (17), and for planes in a nanowire using Eq. (18). Grazing incidence angle in GIXRD.
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