Block diagram showing the three omega electrical circuit including the lock-in amplifier, digital-to-analog converter (DAC), the potentiometer (POT), and corresponding amplifiers; the connections to the sample are made by means of a four-pad metal line deposited on the sample. The inner pads measure the voltage, while the current is sent through the outer pads.
Microscopy images of polyaniline films illustrating (a) damage to a deposited metal line resulting from the undulations and striations which are shown via optical microscopy in (b) and (c) at different surface locations on the sample.
Optical microscopy images of a polyaniline sample (a) on which metallization spreading under the shadow mask occurred such that the current and voltage pads overlapped; (b) on which a wide heater was deposited on a polymer surface using a microfabricated shadow mask well affixed to the sample; (c) on which an ultrasonically bonded wire penetrated the thin film layers, thereby connecting to the substrate directly ( magnification); and (d) on which a successful bond was made between a silver heater pad and a cast polyaniline film using the epoxy∕wire bonding technique.
Thermal conductivity of PECVD silicon dioxide as a function of temperature. The data reported in this work (diamonds) are for a low temperature PECVD deposition of the films. Data from Lee and Cahill of PECVD deposition at are shown for comparison.
Thermal conductivity of a thin film of polyaniline (closed diamonds) and a thick film of polyaniline (open diamonds) as compared with previous work. Quality, preparation method, and thickness can significantly influence the magnitude of thermal conductivity. The increasing trend with temperature is largely indicative of increasing heat capacity.
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