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Escape rate of metastable states in a driven NbN superconducting microwave resonator
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic block diagram of the experimental setup used. The microwave signal generator and the local oscillator at frequency were phase locked. The layout of the resonator is shown at the top-right corner.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online). (a) Forward and backward frequency sweeps applied to the first mode of the resonator at . The sweeps exhibit hysteresis loops at both sides of the resonance line shape. The plots corresponding to different input powers were shifted by a vertical offset for clarity. (b) Reflected power hysteresis measured at a constant angular frequency of which resides within the left-side metastable region of the resonance. For both plots the black (dark) line represents a forward sweep whereas the green (light) line represents a backward sweep.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online). A typical snapshot of the time domain as the resonator is tuned into stochastic resonance condition. The solid (green) line represents the reflected modulated signal, corresponding to ten modulation cycles out of 5000 employed in the analysis. The dotted (blue) sinusoidal line represents the modulation signal applied to the microwave signal generator.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Gaussian probability density functions and fitted to the experimental data which correspond to the transition in panel (a) and to the transition in panel (b). The escape rates and associated with both transitions are plotted in the insets of panels (a) and (b), respectively as a function of the random time variables and according to Eq. (A3).


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Table I.

Calculated and measured model parameters.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Escape rate of metastable states in a driven NbN superconducting microwave resonator