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Triarylamine siloxane anode functionalization/hole injection layers in high efficiency/high luminance small-molecule green- and blue-emitting organic light-emitting diodes
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10.1063/1.2719276
/content/aip/journal/jap/101/9/10.1063/1.2719276
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/101/9/10.1063/1.2719276

Figures

Image of Scheme 1.
Scheme 1.

Structures of multilayer OLED constituent materials: NPB, , Alq, DIQA, , and BCP.

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Anode functionalization effects. Response comparisons of OLEDs having structures ITO/NPB (control) and . (a) Current density vs electric field; (b) luminance vs electric field; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs electric field.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Electron injection, hole-/exciton-blocking effects. Response comparisons of OLEDs having structures ITO/NPB (control) and ITO/NPB (BCP). (a) Current density vs electric field; (b) luminance vs electric field; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs electric field.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Synergy of anode injection, hole-/exciton-blocking structures. Response comparisons of OLEDs having structures ITO/NPB (control), , ITO/NPB (BCP), and . (a) Current density vs electric field; (b) luminance vs electric field; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs electric field. (d) Power efficiency vs electric field. Lines through the data points are drawn as a guide to the eye.

Image of Scheme 2.
Scheme 2.

Energy diagram for the electrodes and OLED organic layers utilized in this study (data taken from the literature).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Anode functionalization effects in blue-emitting OLEDs. Response comparisons of OLEDs having structures ITO/NPB (control) and . (a) Current density vs electric field; (b) luminance vs electric field; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs electric field.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Electron injection, hole-/exciton-blocking effects in blue-emitting OLEDs. Response comparisons of OLEDs having structures ITO/NPB (control) and ITO/NPB (BCP). (a) Current density vs electric field; (b) luminance vs electric field; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs electric field.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Synergy of anode injection, hole-/exciton-blocking structures in blue-emitting OLEDs. Response comparisons of OLEDs having structures ITO/NPB (control), , ITO/NPB (BCP), and . (a) Current density vs electric field; (b) luminance vs electric field; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs electric field. (d) power efficiency vs electric field.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Electroluminescence spectrum of a blue-emitting OLED having the structure . The other -based blue-emitting devices in this study exhibit identical EL spectra.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Role of emissive layer dopants. Comparative OLED EL response data for devices having the structure ITO doped with DIQA/BCP doped with (DIQA) and ITO doped with (No DIQA). (a) Current density vs voltage; (b) luminance vs voltage; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs voltage.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Electroluminescence spectra of a green-emitting OLED having the structure and the photoluminescence spectrum of DIQA.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Role of the cathode in green-emitting OLEDs. Comparative OLED EL response data for devices having the structure ITO doped with DIQA/BCP doped with (AgMg) and ITO doped with DIQA/BCP doped with (Al). (a) Current density vs voltage; (b) luminance vs voltage; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs voltage.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Role of the cathode in blue-emitting OLEDs. Comparative OLED EL response data for devices having the structure ITO doped with (AgMg) and ITO doped with (Al). (a) Current density vs voltage; (b) luminance vs voltage; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs voltage.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Current density ratio as a function of bias comparison for to at identical bias (Alq-based OLEDs) vs that of to (-based OLEDs) at identical bias.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Current characteristics of Figs. 1 and 4, replotted to fit the Fowler-Nordheim model. (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) .

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

EL response ratio of to at identical bias (Alq-based OLEDs) vs that of to (-based OLEDs). (a) Luminance ratio; (b) external forward quantum efficiency ratio.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

The current density ratio of to at identical bias (Alq-based OLEDs) vs that of ITO to (-based OLEDs).

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Effects of Li doping on response. OLED EL data for devices having the structure ITO doped with (Li) and ITO (No Li). (a) Current density vs voltage; (b) luminance vs voltage; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs voltage.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Comparative OLED EL response data for blue-emitting OLED devices having the structure ITO (control), ITO doped with (BCP), and ITO doped with (Alq). (a) Current density vs voltage; (b) luminance vs voltage; (c) external forward quantum efficiency vs voltage.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

OLED EL response data for devices having the structure ITO anode/NPB/Alq doped with DIQA/AgMg (control), ITO anode/ doped with DIQA/AgMg , ITO anode/NPB/Alq doped with DIQA/BCP doped with (BCP), and ITO anode/ doped with DIQA/BCP doped with

Generic image for table
Table II.

OLED EL response data for devices having the structure: ITO (control), ITO ITO doped with (BCP), and ITO doped with

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/content/aip/journal/jap/101/9/10.1063/1.2719276
2007-05-02
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Triarylamine siloxane anode functionalization/hole injection layers in high efficiency/high luminance small-molecule green- and blue-emitting organic light-emitting diodes
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/101/9/10.1063/1.2719276
10.1063/1.2719276
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