Line-to-line tree channels (Ref. 8). In this drawing, each tree has two levels of pairing or bifurcation , and, consequently, the flow rate through the trunk is approximately four times the flow rate through each of the smallest channels of the canopy.
Volume element vascularized with two sets of parallel channels in the counterflow.
The change in channel cross-section size from mother to daughter channels: (a) the channels have the same shape (square); (b) the channels have the same depth .
The optimization of the channel cross-sectional shape when all the channels of the tree have the same depth .
The effect of tree architecture porosity and channels depth on the optimized global flow rate .
The effect of channels depth and porosity on the flow rates through the trees and parallel channels structures.
The geometry of inlets, junctions and outlets projected on the plane .
The effect of the overall pressure difference on the flow rates through tree-shaped and parallel-channels structures (, cases 1–5 of Table II).
The effect of porosity or svelteness on mass flow rates (, cases 7–11).
Numerical results showing the effect of the number of pairing levels .
The effect of the imposed pressure difference on the flow rate and Re distribution through the channels of the architecture.
(a) The effect of porosity on flow rate maldistribution (cases 7–11, ); (b) the Re distribution for case 7 (, ); (c) the Re distribution for case 11 (, ).
The effect of the number of pairing levels on the flow rate maldistribution (cases 2, 6, 8, and 12).
The domain of allowable tree designs in which adjacent trees do not interfere with each other.
The effect of channel depth and the ratio of smallest length scales on the relative goodness of tree-shaped vascularization .
Parameters used in the analysis.
Cases selected for numerical simulation.
Mesh independence test for cases 1 and 5 of Table II.
The effect of changing the tree flow direction when : comparison between trees and of Fig. 3 (number of cells).
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