Markov model for probabilistic motion in the reaction chamber. Each coordinate corresponds to a state of the process into which target analytes can move or from which they can leave. represents the location of the analyte particle at time , and defines the coordinates of the state in the system.
Markov model for probabilistic capture in the reaction chamber. Only when the target analytes get into intimate proximity of the capturing probes (state 1) there is a probability of capturing denote by .
Modification of association transition probability , due to probe saturation.
Block diagram of different stages of a general biosensor platform. Various noise processes originating from different sources may corrupt the signal; however, all of these noise sources can be referred to as the number of analytes in the sample.
Impedimetric biosensor where binding of analytes alters the impedance (or admittance ) between the fingers of an interdigitated electrode structure. The change in overall impedance corresponds to the amount of captured analytes.
Detection circuitry for the impedimetric biosensor.
Performance result of the impedimetric biosensor. In (a) the biosensor output signal is plotted vs the target analyte concentration. In (b) the SNR of the system is plotted and the DR is calculated for the of .
Fluorescence-based biosensor where binding of labeled analytes is detected after the incubation phase. The emitted light from the fluorescent labels is detected by the photodiode connected to a charge integrating transimpedance amplifier (CTIA).
Simulation result of fluorescence-based biosensor. In (a) the biosensor output signal is plotted vs the target analyte concentration. In (b) the SNR of the system is plotted and the DR is shown for the of . In (c) the SNR of the system is shown where the integration time (i.e., transduction gain) is increased by one order of magnitude while the photodetector dark-current noise power is decreased ten times.
Noise figure (NF) of the biosensor platforms, where (a) is for the microfabricated impedimetric biosensor, (b) is for the fluorescence-based biosensor, and (c) is for the modified (low-noise) fluorescence-based biosensor.
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise figure (NF) of biosensor systems when (a) only the target analyte is in the system, (b) the target analyte and the interfering species coexist in the system, and (c) when the system in addition has noisy amplification stages.
Characteristics of the impedimetric biosensor.
Characteristics of the fluorescence-based biosensor.
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