Cross-sectional SEM image of a PMMA grating. The height of the grating lines is 100 nm and the gap between the grating lines is 50 nm. The period is 100 nm.
Experimental setup for x-ray diffraction from a grating made by EUV-IL. The distance is 1.5 m. The wavelength of the incoming x-ray beam is 0.146 nm. Two pairs of slits define the beam. An ionization chamber counts the number of photons per second, , on the sample.
(Color online) Diffraction patterns of a PMMA grating with a period . The temperature was ramped from to . A clear enhancement of the intensities in the diffraction peaks is seen up to the temperature of about . Above the peaks disappear due to a glass transition. Note that the diffraction intensities have been offset for clarity.
(Color online) The total scattering power of the grating as a function of temperature. Curves are shown for gratings which have been pre-exposed to x rays so as to study the influence of x-ray radiation on the glass transition temperature of PMMA.
(Color online) The glass temperature as a function of the absorbed x-ray dose. The linear behavior can be explained with a theoretical model for the decrease in PMMA molecular weight as a function of x-ray dose.
Properties of PMMA (Refs. 37 and 39).
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